Sam Houston's criminal justice program was the dream of two visionary men, George J. Beto, former director of the Texas Department of Corrections, and Arleigh B Templeton, former president of Sam Houston State College.
Together, their goal was to establish a program of excellence in criminal justice education, utilizing the Texas state prison system as a laboratory for research. The creation of the Criminal Justice Center is marked by the culmination of an era in which the idea of "theory into practice" is vigorously pursued. This idea was the defining credo of the College's founding director, George G. Killinger, and the foundation which the Center has built its curriculum and reputation as a leader in the field of criminal justice.
For a more detailed history click on a decade.
Sam Houston's criminal justice program was the dream of two visionary men, George J. Beto, Director of the Texas Department of Corrections, and Arleigh B. Templeton, President of Sam Houston State College. Their goal was to establish a program of excellence in justice education, utilizing the prison system as a laboratory for research, much as a teaching hospital serves this function in medical education.
Responsive to their idea, the Texas Legislature enacted House Resolution 469, which directed the College and the Texas Department of Corrections to create a cooperative program with four objectives: Establishment of an educational program for students seeking careers in law enforcement, courts and corrections; Development of a continuing education program for professionals working in the field; Conduct of research on the causes of crime and the treatment of offenders; and Provision of technical assistance to criminal justice agencies in Texas.
Over the next decade, Beto and Templeton's dream would become the largest and most diversified criminal justice program in the English-speaking world.
Thomas Huxley once wrote: "The great end of life is not knowledge but action."
This would prove to be the defining credo of George G. Killinger, recruited by Drs. Beto and Templeton as founding Director of the Institute of Contemporary Corrections and Behavioral Sciences at Sam Houston. After a career with the Federal Bureau of Prisons and service on the U.S. Parole Board, Killinger brought to this new program his passion for bringing "theory to practice."
The Institute was initially joined with the Sociology Department, which formed the core of its faculty, and was located in the Woods Building, since demolished. The sociology faculty at that time included David Richmond, Lowell Mayrant, J. D. McLeod, Phil Morris, and Robert Van Burkleo. To this initial group, Killinger added Hazel B. Kerper, a lawyer he recruited from Florida State University, Hal Caldwell, and Larry Hazelrigg.
In that first academic year, Killinger and Kerper conceived the idea of an Annual Interagency Workshop, a program to bring together leaders from the criminal justice community to discuss the state's crime problem. For the next two decades, this annual workshop probably contributed more to Killinger's idea of bringing "theory to practice" than any other Institute program.
In 1966, Sam Houston State College underwent a dicennial accreditation by the Southern Regional Education Board. In its assessment of the College's criminal justice program, the report cited the Institute as "...the best model of a university-agency program in correctional rehabilitation in the nation."
Pleased with the Institute's progress, the Texas Legislature appropriated a $25,000 Special Item to enable the development of continuing education programs, research studies, and technical assistance to the state's criminal justice agencies.
Also salient that year was the completion of a curriculum of undergraduate and graduate courses in criminal justice, an aggressive initiative to recruit field practitioners to the program, and the matriculation of 58 undergraduates.
This was a year of growth and recognition for the Institute. A major grant was received from the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare to study career opportunities in law enforcement and corrections, a natural complement to the Institute's dynamic student recruitment program.
To meet growing demand for the masters program, the Institute began to establish extension centers in urban areas throughout the state. Institute faculty traveled one night a week to the various centers, enabling career professionals to pursue graduate education in their home communities. New faculty hired to meet this need were Charles M. Friel, to serve as Director of Research, and Don Weisenhorn, formerly of the National Council on Crime and Delinquency, who would retire in 1991, a superb teacher serving as Associate Dean in his later years. Also joining the faculty this year were Ralph Anderson, Beverly Bradbury, and John Wodarsky.
Adding its support to these efforts, the Texas Legislature enacted House Concurrent Resolution 11, commending the Institute's progress and pledging continued fiscal support in pursuit of the goals of education, research, training, and technical assistance.
The decade of the 1960s was marred by urban violence, racial tension, and a soaring crime rate. In response, Congress enacted the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, which included the creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA). In keeping with President Lyndon B. Johnson's keen interest in education, the LEAA promulgated the Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP), which substantially spurred the growth of the Institute.
Under this program, Institute students who were already working in the field could receive tuition grants to pay for their education without the requirement of repayment. Pre-service students could receive tuition loans repayable year-for-year by working in the field. These funds swelled the Institute's on-campus and extension enrollment to over 1800 FTE students by 1973, with LEEP funds peaking at a million per year.
New faculty joining the program in 1968 included Berry Barnes, Robert W. Cassidy, Dorothy Hayes, Howard Katz, Hugh Pratt, and Muhammed Solomon. A total of 66 students graduated this year.
Two major grants were received in 1969 which focused on developing internships and training programs for criminal justice professionals. The Manpower Development in Social Rehabilitation and Social Services Grant was designed to create a sequence of courses and an internship program for those interested in all aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of offenders. The Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Corrections Grant enabled the Institute to develop a series of specialized training programs for juvenile probation officers and professionals working with juveniles in institutional settings.
Enrollment continued to grow through 1969, with FTE students increasing to 203, and 121 students matriculating, six with masters degrees. The first student to complete the newly created masters degree in criminal justice was Al Havenstrite, who would finish his career as Chief Federal Probation Officer for the Northern District of Texas.
To keep up with this growth, additional staff, including Betty Small, and five new faculty James Barrum, James Bynum, Michael Eernisse, John Watkins, Jr., and Jeanne Young were hired. Dr. Young retired in 1992 after 24 years of admirably dedicated service.
Dr. Templeton resigned the presidency of Sam Houston in 1970 to become the President of the University of Texas at San Antonio. Vice-President Elliott T. Bowers was appointed President, and over the next two decades creatively guided the University's criminal justice program.
Of particular note in 1970 was the decision by the Coordinating Board of Texas Colleges and University Systems to grant the University the doctoral degree in criminal justice, one of the first in the nation.Also significant was the donation to the University of the library of Sanford Bates, an internationally recognized penologist. His unique collection of over 5,000 personal papers, books, and monographs traces the history of American corrections over the first third of the century. The collection is of particular value to those interested in federal corrections, since Bates was the founding Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
As enrollment increased to 665 FTE students, additional faculty were recruited, including James Allman, Walter Bennett, Billy Bramlett, William Browning, Edwin Heath, Glen Kercher, Robert McCullough, John Matthews, William Megathlin, Robert Walker, and James Weber.
Utilizing funding from the LEAA, the Texas Legislature, and the Houston Endowment, Inc., construction began on the Criminal Justice Center. The facility was built by the Texas Department of Corrections, not only reducing the cost of construction, but, perhaps more importantly, also providing thousands of inmates invaluable training and experience in over a dozen skilled trades.
To address problems in military stockades in the latter days of Vietnam, the Department of the Army asked the Institute to develop a special masters degree program in institutional corrections for military police officers. The success of this program became evident by the fact that within a few years, every U.S. military stockade throughout the world was commanded by one of the alumni of this unique program.
Continued growth of enrollment required the appointment of nine new faculty, including John Cocoros, who would serve with distinction as Coordinator of the Institute's expanding continuing education program, Gary Copus, Don E. Kirkpatrick, John Matthews, Leo McCandlish, Wayland Pilcher, Robert Shearer, Robert Sheldon, and Linda Snyder.
In the early 1970s, criminal justice was a new discipline, characterized by a paucity of academic programs, text books and journals. It was not surprising, therefore, that Hazel Kerper's text, Introduction to the Criminal Justice System, became an immediate success. Although legal in its orientation, it was the first text providing an overview of the criminal justice system, incorporating theory with emerging justice policy and administrative practice.
Probation in Texas was a county-administered judicial function in 1972. As a result, no mechanism existed to provide uniform training for officers or a state-wide forum for probation administrators to discuss common interests and emerging concerns. This void was filled with the creation of the Texas Probation Training Academy, which soon became one of the largest continuing professional development programs of the Institute.
To foster the development of the doctoral program, a curriculum development grant was secured from the Criminal Justice Council of the Governor's Office. Glen Kercher became the coordinator of this program, and over the next seven years, did yeoman work in nurturing the doctoral program to one of national renown.
After retiring as Director of the Texas Department of Corrections, George J. Beto joined the faculty, with Ann Baker, Jerry Dowling, Erwin Ernst, Dick Kiekbusch, and Doug Moore. Dianne Key, who would ably serve three deans as Administrative Coordinator, was also hired.
Randall P. McCauley and Ronald J. Waldron became the first two students to receive the doctoral degree in criminal justice. During an interview at the time of commencement, Dr. Killinger was quoted as saying: "The conferring of these degrees to these outstanding candidates is the crowning glory of the program in criminal justice at Sam Houston."
Another milestone in the doctoral program was the creation of the Jesse H. and Mary Gibbs Jones Doctoral Fellowship Program, which has annually provided generous scholarships, enabling the program to recruit outstanding scholars from throughout the country.
In addition to Drs. McCauley and Waldron, 385 undergraduates and 59 masters students completed the program. Continued growth, however, necessitated the addition of faculty, resulting in the successful recruitment of Jimmy D. Shaddock, Sam Souryal, and Milton O. Womack.
The Study Abroad Program was conceived in 1973 and placed under the leadership of Sam Souryal. Through the years, this program provided students a first-hand opportunity to study the criminal justice systems of England and Egypt, an experience that many judged to be the most beneficial of their educational careers.
In concert with the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, the Institute received a major grant to study the mentally retarded offender. Titled Project CAMIO and funded by the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, it was a seminal effort to study policy issues surrounding the care and treatment of retarded offenders.
The study examined the incidence and treatment of deviant individuals in institutions for the retarded, as well as the incidence and treatment of retarded offenders sentenced to prison or probation. In addition, a review of case law was conducted for jurisprudence regarding the legal responsibility of retarded individuals accused of criminal acts.
The year 1974 would prove to be the historical high watermark for students graduating from the University's criminal justice program. A total of 532 men and women received degrees that year: three receiving the Ph.D., 74 the masters degree, and 446 the bachelor's degree.
Rolando del Carmen, Rodney Henningsen, Gregory Riede, and Pauline Loveless joined the program in 1974. Dr. Loveless retired in 1991 after serving as Assistant Dean for Undergraduate Studies and Coordinator of the Internship Program in the latter years of her distinguished career.
The tenth anniversary of the Institute's Interagency Workshop was marked in June. What had begun as a program spawned with meager resources and taught by a few faculty had grown into a major university event taught by a distinguished faculty drawn from throughout the country. Notables among the visiting faculty that year were Commissioner Benjamin Malcolm of the New York Department of Corrections; Pierce Brooks, the Director of Public Safety in Lakewood, Colorado; Norval Morris, Director of the Center of Studies in Criminal Justice at the University of Chicago; and Judge Tim Murphy of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia.
More than 600 professionals and students applied for the program, but facility limitations capped enrollment at 300. The success of this and previous workshops was in great measure due to the generous grants provided by the Criminal Justice Council and the Rockwell Foundation, and the logistical support provided by the Texas Department of Corrections.
In tribute to the visibility gained by the University's justice program in its first decade, Commissioner Malcolm observed: "I am deeply impressed by the caliber and magnitude of your program. Indeed, it is not only a credit to the state of Texas, but to the entire nation and the field of criminal justice as well."
The year also marked the sad passing of Hazel B. Kerper: scholar, teacher, and dear colleague.
In August, the faculty and staff of the Institute began the long-awaited move from the Woods Building to the Criminal Justice Center. On moving day, while faculty and staff were unpacking their boxes, paint was still drying in parts of the building, light fixtures were being installed, and final touches were being applied by the Texas Department of Corrections.
Indeed, it was a magnificent facility: 197,000 square feet, 26 classrooms, 106 offices, a 500-seat auditorium, a courtroom, crime laboratory, television studio, library, computer center, and a 98-room hotel for continuing education trainees. The actual cost of the Center was $7 million dollars, but it was valued at the time of its opening at $20 million, the difference accounted for by the use of inmate labor from the Texas Department of Corrections.
State of Texas v. Nicol became the first criminal case tried in the courtroom of the Center. This theft case came to the University on a change of venue from the 78th District Court in Wichita Falls and was tried by the Honorable Stanley C. Kirk. This and subsequent trials would prove to be of profound educational value to students.
Raymond Teske joined the Center in 1976, having previously been a member of the University's Sociology Department.
This transition year marked the beginning of a new era as February 24th and 25th were set aside for the dedication of the Criminal Justice Center. On the 24th, Dr. Karl A. Menninger, the eminent psychiatrist, delivered a dedicatory colloquium encouraging faculty, staff, students, and alumni to persist in the timeless pursuit of justice. In commenting on the University's achievements in justice education, he proclaimed:
"Here is a public effort toward helping reduce the number and change the lives of offenders, made possible, not by rich men or charitable men, but by the wise administrative leaders of a great state, whose example looms up like a beacon for the country, yes, and for the continent and the world to see!"
The Center was formally dedicated on February 25th with an address given by Governor Dolph Briscoe. In his remarks, the Governor praised the University and the Texas Department of Corrections, saying:
"I think the development of this Center and its educational programs are clear and convincing evidence that local, state, and federal government can work together effectively with the private sector for the public good."
With the completion of the Center, founding Director George G. Killinger retired and George J. Beto assumed the position of Interim Director. This marked the culmination of an era in which both men had so brilliantly brought "theory to practice."
The second era of the program was launched with the appointment of Victor G. Strecher as Dean of the College of Criminal Justice and Director of the Institute. Under his leadership, the number and variety of continuing education programs would expand significantly over the next seven years, along with endowments, scholarships, international programs, and research activities.
The Center published the results of its first annual Texas Crime Poll in March, an idea pioneered by Raymond Teske, Director of the Survey Research Program. The poll questions adult Texans concerning their perceptions about the crime problem, and is invaluable to agency administrators and legislators.
In April, the Center's courtroom was named for Hazel B. Kerper. President Bowers well-noted in his remarks that Dr. Kerper was a magnificent woman, an inspiration to her friends, colleagues, and students. Her work on behalf of the program will be remembered daily as the courtroom is used for seminars and training programs, as well as trials. September brought to the Kerper Courtroom its third criminal trial on change of venue. These trials uniquely portray for students the seriousness of the crime problem and the intractable challenges of pursuing justice in a complex society.
Ralph Marshall joined the faculty this year, retiring in 1992 after serving most ably as Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies.
George J. Beto's tireless contributions to the field of corrections were uniquely recognized by the creation of a chair in his honor by the Houston Endowment, Inc. Interest from this endowment would enable the Center to bring to campus experts from throughout the world, providing students, faculty and field practitioners a continuing opportunity to discuss the problems of crime and justice with intellectual leaders in the field.
The University's criminal justice archive was substantially enriched by the gifts of the personal papers of James V. Bennett, the second Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and Austin H. MacCormick, a penologist whose research included an assessment of the Texas prison system in the 1940s prior to the reforms initiated by O. B. Ellis. Among Bennett's papers is a prescient quote from a 1937 interview in which he said:
"The four horsemen of penology are disease, overcrowding, idleness and despair. I don't know which of these is most destructive. But I believe nothing can have so denigrating an influence upon a human being as despair."
Organizational changes marked 1979 as well. Rolando del Carmen was appointed Coordinator of the Doctoral Program, James Barrum as Coordinator of the Correctional Education Program, and Larry Hoover as Assistant Director for Professional Programs and Development. Steve Bullard was hired to manage the University Hotel, and Gene Blair to develop the Center's Police Academy. Frank Williams III also joined the faculty.
The year began with the implementation of the Saudi Arabian Traffic Training Program, a $1.5 million contract with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to prepare the first cadre of its newly created highway patrol system. The proceeds from this contract would be invested in the Century II Endowment, providing scholarships in perpetuity for criminal justice students.
Gary McDonald, the Center's media director, completed the acclaimed film "Doin' Life" under a grant from the Texas Committee for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Humanities. This launched a series of films produced by the Center, culminating in production of "Rape/Crisis," which was awarded First Place at the 1991 Epernay Film Festival in Paris, France.
The University's criminal justice students distinguished themselves in March by taking home 20 of 27 awards at the Region II Conference of Lambda Alpha Epsilon, a professional fraternity for criminal justice majors, and with the establishment of the SHSU chapter of Alpha Phi Sigma, the National Criminal Justice Honor Society.
After completing a self-study and hosting a field visit by a team of experienced justice educators, the College became the first program in the nation certified by the Criminal Justice Education Council.
Jerry Dowling was appointed Assistant Director for Professional Programs in 1980, retired Judge Wallace Miller and Douglas McKenzie joined the faculty, and Diane Cochran and Jimmie Harvey joined the staff./
An Irish proverb teaches that good things come in threes and so it was in 1981. John Conrad served as the first Beto Chair Professor, an internationally respected scholar noted for his prolific contributions to the field and for his unique skill in providing a bridge between the social sciences and field practitioners. He was also honored by the University as the first recipient of the Defensor Pacem Medal.
The Master of Science program was conceived as an intensive semester degree, giving career professionals an opportunity to complete their graduate education by attending weekend classes. A decade after its inception, the fruits of this program became clearly evident in the number of graduates who had attained senior positions in law enforcement and correctional agencies.
The 100 Club of Houston, Inc., is dedicated to law enforcement officer safety and to providing financial support to the families of officers killed in the line of duty. In 1981, the Club agreed to provide a scholarship program to support any Harris County officer accepted into the Master of Science program. Subsequently, the Club created endowed scholarships, named after former Club presidents, for law enforcement undergraduates.
An embellishment to this year of "good things" was the dedication of the John H. Crooker Sr. Judge's Chamber on Dec. 1. As former Governor Price Daniel Sr. highlighted in his dedicatory remarks, Crooker was a man of unyielding opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, credited with breaking the Texas Klan in the 1920s.
By the end of the year, the University would graduate its 4500th criminal justice major and would find its alumni working in every area of the field in Texas, throughout the nation, and on three continents.
The year also marked the first annual certification program of the Texas Association for Court Administration (TACA), in conjunction with the Center and the Texas Center for the Judiciary. The University has enjoyed a long association with the Texas judiciary, serving through the years as the host for the annual Criminal Justice Conference, the Second Administrative Judicial District Conference, and the College for New Judges.
The TACA certification program added one more facet to this relationship as the Center hosted the annual program for the certification of court coordinators for the Texas judiciary. This association would not only open career opportunities for students interested in the courts, but would also provide students and faculty access to research opportunities within the judiciary.
Leslie T. Wilkins, Professor Emeritus of the State University of New York, and James W. Osterburg of the University of Illinois served as Beto Chair Professors in 1982, continuing the rich tradition begun by John Conrad. Pauline Loveless accepted appointment as Assistant Dean for Undergraduate Studies, and Larry Hoover brought honor to the program by being elected President of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
A highlight of 1983 was an international conference co-hosted by the Criminal Justice Center and the United Nations. With participants from nations covering the globe, the conference focused on procedures for the collection and analysis of international statistics on crime and victims, judicial dispositions, and the correction of offenders. The conference developed a plan later presented to the world community of justice ministers and scholars attending the Seventh United Nations International Congress on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Offenders in Venezuela.
The conference proved an excellent opportunity for students and faculty interested in comparative criminal justice, both to attend the formal deliberations of the conference and to enjoy informal contact with justice administrators from around the world. The work of the conference led to the ongoing international crime survey conducted by the United Nations, which has become a rich source of data for comparative justice research.
A bachelor's degree in social work was also implemented this year, and the first classes were offered in the intensive semester Master of Science program.
C. Ray Jeffery and Simon Dinitz joined the faculty in 1983 as the Beto Chair Professors, and Jamie Tillerson joined the staff.
Several changes in the organization of the College were introduced in 1984, including the appointment of William Pelfery as Associate Dean for Academic Administration and Dennis Longmire as Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies. These additions to the College paralleled the expansion of staff in the Institute, and reflected administrative accommodations to the expanding size and diversity of both the academic and continuing education programs.
Typical of the growing number of training programs conducted at the Center was the annual criminal trial advocacy workshop sponsored by the Criminal Defense Lawyers Project. Each year the workshop brings to campus criminal trial lawyers for an intensive week of lectures and hands-on exercises to sharpen their advocacy skills. The program grew out of a recognition by both the bench and the bar that the pursuit of justice required competent defense advocates, particularly in the defense of the indigent.
Two faculty were singled out for honors in 1984. Rolando del Carmen received the University's prestigious Excellence in Research Award, and Sam Souryal was awarded the Shield of Honor by the Ministry of the Interior of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Jerome H. Skolnick of the University of California at Berkeley joined the faculty as the Beto Chair Professor, providing a series of informative lectures on the sociology of law and criminology.
Victor G. Strecher, who had served as Dean of the College and Director of the Institute since 1978, resigned in 1985 to return as a full-time member of the faculty. George J. Beto once again assumed responsibility as interim Dean, organizing a national search for a new head of the Criminal Justice Center.
A new dimension was added to the Beto Chair Program this year. Previously the endowment had been used to support a professor in residence, but this year a lecture series was added, permitting a greater number of scholars to participate in the program. Sue Titus Reid served in the Beto Chair, while Ron Akers, John Conrad, and Simon Dinitz served as lecturers.
Of particular interest this year was an article by Green, Bynum, and Webb appearing in the Criminal Justice Review, which compared the various criminal justice graduate programs in the United States. Sam Houston's was ranked one of the best, and unique in its emphasis on both theory and practice.
The 5000th criminal justice student graduated from Sam Houston in 1985, with five new Ph.D.s, 46 students with masters degrees, and 162 undergraduates.
A third era in the history of the Center would be marked by the appointment of Charles M. Friel as Dean and Director. Over the next five years he would add several new facets to the program, including the Criminal Justice Alumni Association, a series of practitioner-oriented books published by Sam Houston Press, several new endowment and scholarship programs, and specialized credentialing programs for undergraduate students.
In October, faculty, students, alumni, and friends gathered to pay tribute to the founding Director by dedicating the George G. Killinger Auditorium and presenting him with the Defensor Pacem Medal, the Center's highest honor.
The year 1986 also brought a new research interest to the Center. Under a major grant from the National Institute of Justice, Doug Moore began working with the nation's best serial murder investigators to develop a manual to assist law enforcement agencies in conducting multiagency investigations of suspected serial killings.
Enrollment reached 504 FTE students, following a decline in the early '80s, and the number of graduates reached 203. James Marquart joined the faculty this year, along with Dorothy Bracey as Beto Chair and Alfred Blumstein, Steven Schlesinger, and Norval Morris as Beto Chair lecturers.
An international flavor seasoned the Center's life this year as a product of several initiatives to enrich the academic program. Sandra Wachholtz became the first Sam Houston student to receive a Fulbright Grant, affording her an opportunity to conduct comparative research in Sweden. In addition to this honor, she was invited to attend the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize award ceremonies.
The previous year, undergraduate Danny Fuentes, now a special agent with the FBI, had completed an internship with ILANUD, a United Nations Institute in Costa Rica. In 1987, Dr. Elias Carranza, Assistant Director of the Institute, visited the Center to explore further exchange programs. Following his visit, undergraduate Cynthia Carranza (not related) received a research appointment with the Institute. In an earlier international appointment, graduate student Lynn Bradshaw had served as a research intern with the UN Crime Prevention Office in Vienna, Austria.
In May, a delegation of high-ranking police officials from the People's Republic of China visited the Center. Li Jang Xuan, head of the delegation and Deputy Director of the Education Department of The Ministry of Public Security, sought ways to develop an exchange program, which resulted in three faculty: Charles Friel, Doug Moore, and Sam Souryal visiting China as well as the graduation a few years later of our first alumna from the People's Republic, Yaru Chang. In 1994, Mrs. Chang died tragically in the line of duty in her homeland.
This year saw the fruition of several initiatives begun the year before. Raymond Teske completed Crime and Justice in Texas, published by Sam Houston Press, bringing together for the first time a compendium of facts and figures on crime and justice in Texas - a landmark report.
Apple Computer, Inc. donated a complete computer lab and Microsoft donated a software library. This began the process of bringing PC technology to every office in the Criminal Justice Center.
After a year of tracking down its graduates, the Center created a steering committee to organize the Criminal Justice Alumni Association. Starting with a base of 2000 alumni, the committee began enrolling members in November, laying the groundwork for an organization that would provide many opportunities for mutual enrichment of students, alumni, and the College itself.
The year also marked the creation of the first Texas Peace Officer Academic Licensing Academy, a program allowing undergraduate law enforcement majors to become certified police officers prior to graduation. The credit for this success goes to Gene Blair, Academy Coordinator, and Jerry Dowling, faculty advisor.
The Beto Chair lecture series punctuated the year with a diversity of discussions provided by Dorothy Bracey, Simon Dinitz, Larry Sherman, Joan Petersilia, and Hal Pepinski. Ten students completed the Ph.D., and a total of 270 students graduated, 46 with masters degrees.
President Elliott T. Bowers retired in 1989 and will be fondly remembered and deeply appreciated for his leadership and support of the criminal justice program. Newly appointed President Martin J. Anisman would continue this tradition, and through his emphasis on the role of research and development in the University, would play a key role in the expansion of the Center's research agenda.
In keeping with the goal of bringing theory to practice, the Center initiated the Books Project, joint ventures with field practitioners to produce applied texts much needed by the field and economically published by Sam Houston Press. The first book was Probation Law and Practice, written by Rolando del Carmen and several graduate students, followed by Pursuing Justice: The Management of the Texas Trial Courts, authored by doctoral student Joseph B. Vaughn, working with judges and court administrators. The latter book has been used as a basic text in both the College for New Judges and the certification program for court administrators.
The Criminal Justice Alumni Association became a reality this year with the election of a Board of Directors and publication of Vol. I, No. 1, of The Mandate.
Three additions to the faculty were Steven J. Cuvelier, Margaret Farnworth, and Bernard Licarione. Among 303 criminal justice graduates, the 6000th student matriculated. R.W. Burnham of the UN served as Beto Chair and Rita Simon, Don Gottfredson, Herman Goldstein, and Richard Quinney served as Beto Chair Lecturers.
The centerpiece of 1990 activities was the 25th Anniversary celebration. A conference on the future of justice began the two-day event with presentations by Norman Carlson, former Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, Judge Larry Gist, and Norval Morris of the University of Chicago School of Law.
At the anniversary dinner, over 300 friends and alumni were treated to a delightful history of the program during the early years presented by former President Arleigh B. Templeton, embellished with impish humor and an occasional appeal to Texas hyperbole.
The ceremonies also included the annual honors convocation, at which the Houston Endowment, Inc. was awarded the Defensor Pacem Medal, and the placement of a time capsule sculpted by noted artist Charles Pebworth, containing memorabilia on the Center.
For many, however, the most memorable event was the dedication of the sundial. As a brass ensemble toned the poignant Navy Hymn and students reverently placed six yellow roses on the dial, the words engraved on the memorial touched the hearts of those assembled. The work of a generation was complete and they held out a hand to the next generation, encouraging them to continue the noble pursuit of justice.
"A memorial in honor of the alumni of the Criminal Justice Center who serve the cause of justice throughout the world and in memory of those who have perished in this service."
The year ended sadly with the passing of George J. Beto (1916-1991), requiescat in pace. Demonstrating the adage that a man's good deeds live beyond him, Beto's students continue to carry his vision throughout the world.
Timothy J. Flanagan was appointed Dean and Director, replacing Dean Friel who returned to the classroom after five years of administrative service, and James Barrum was appointed Assistant Dean for Undergraduate Studies.
James Marquart was honored by receiving the Outstanding Book Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for An Appeal to Justice, co-authored with Ben M. Crouch. Several more texts were published by the University Press under the Books Project, including Supervision and Treatment of Sex Offenders, by Glen Kercher and Lydia Long, Alcohol and Drug Awareness and Prevention in Texas, by Lynn White-Longmire, Texas Juvenile Law and Practice by Rolando del Carmen et.al., and Responding to Workplace Drug Use in Probation and Parole: A Guide by James A. Barrum and Wayland D. Pilcher.
Roland Chilton of the University of Massachusetts served as Beto Chair Professor during this year of transition, with Michael Gottfredson, Hans Toch, and Jim Fyfe serving as Beto Chair Lecturers. Graduates totaled 318, including 28 with masters degrees and 11 receiving the Ph.D.
At a ceremony on Feb. 8, the Criminal Justice Center was named for George J. Beto in honor of his tireless work on behalf of corrections and criminal justice education at Sam Houston. In his remarks at the 25th Anniversary, Beto had recalled that the two professional accomplishments of which he was most unabashedly proud were the establishment of the Windham Independent School District within the prison system and his role in the establishment of the Criminal Justice Center.
Under Dean Flanagan's leadership, the Center completed a comprehensive program review, examining all areas with an eye both on what had served us well in the past and what opportunities were emerging for the future. The results formed the foundation for a continuing strategic development process for the Center.
Two administrative changes were made in 1992. Ken Adams joined the College as Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies, and Sam Souryal was appointed as Assistant Dean for Undergraduate Studies. New faculty appointed were Myrna Cintron, Wesley Johnson, and Laura Myers. Don Gibbons, the editor of Crime and Delinquency, served as the Beto Chair and Nils Christie, Joycelyn Pollock-Byrne, and Lee P. Brown served as lecturers.
The 7000th student matriculated along with four Ph.D.s, 28 masters students, and 329 undergraduates.
October was another sad time in the history of the Center with the passing of George G. Killinger (1908-1993), the founding Director. Reflecting on Killinger's accomplishments, B. K. Marks, Vice-President for Academic Affairs, put it well: "Dr. Killinger had the ability to make everyone feel like they were important that meant everyone from faculty and staff to students."
The 73rd session of the Texas Legislature relocated the Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas (LEMIT) to Sam Houston State University through enactment of House Bill 977. This one-of-a-kind program is designed to groom the future leaders of law enforcement in Texas through an intensive curriculum of managerial courses taught by leading experts from throughout the United States. The Graduate Management Institute (GMI), LEMITs largest program, is run by a consortium made up of Texas A & M University, Texas Woman's University, and Sam Houston.
Jurg Gerber and Raymond Teske were appointed co-editors of The Criminologist, the newsletter of the American Society of Criminology, and Margaret Farnworth began service as the Associate Dean for Academic Administration, replacing Dennis Longmire who returned to the faculty after eight years of dedicated service. Leo Carroll served as the Beto Chair and Hans-Jorg Albrecht of the Max Plank Institute and David Farrington of Cambridge University served as lecturers. Nine new Ph.D.s were granted, bringing the total number of doctoral graduates since 1972 to 126.
The Center mourned the loss of its cherished colleague Wayland D. Pilcher (1932-1994). A master teacher who received the University's coveted Excellence in Teaching Award, Pilcher will be fondly remembered by the legions of students he served so well as mentor and friend.
A major effort in 1994 was the organization of the Bill Blackwood Management Institute. Gerald Williams was recruited as Executive Director and under his direction a distinguished staff was assembled. The Institute was dedicated on Sept 10. President Anisman hosted the many guests gathered to pay tribute to the late Representative Blackwood, including Hon. William Cunningham, Chairman of the Board of Regents, Chancellor Lamar Urbanovsky, State Representatives Ron Lewis, Keith Oakley, Elvira Reyna, Allen Hightower, and TCLEOSE Executive Director D. C. Jim Dozier.
The Correctional Management Institute of Texas was also established, paralleling the law enforcement-oriented Blackwood Institute. Dan Beto was hired as Director and the Institute began operation in September. An outgrowth of this initiative was the selection of the Center to serve as the secretariat for the Texas Probation Association and as the publisher of its journal, Texas Probation.
The Center's professional programs set new records for both the diversity and the number of training courses offered 375 programs serving more than 20,000 attendees.
The Criminal Justice Center celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1995. Several functions marked the occasion, including a ceremony, the dedication of a commemorative bench honoring the memory of Dr. Pilcher, and the display of a collection of memorabilia in the Lobby of the Center.
Rolando del Carmen was named Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice, the highest faculty honor that the University can give to a faculty member. In addition, Raymond Teske received the University's Excellence in Research Award for 1995.
The National Association of Probation Executives voted unanimously to name the Criminal Justice Center as its secretariat. Secretariat duties include maintaining membership records, planning meetings and conferences, and cooperating with the Sam Houston Press to produce the association's journal, Executive Exchange.
Enrollment increases in the College made possible the recruitment of five new criminal justice faculty members: Victoria Brewer, Kelly Damphousse, Nancy Horton, Phillip Lyons, and Mitchel Roth.
The faculty was augmented in 1996 with the hiring of Randall Garner and Michael Smith, as the criminal justice program continued to thrive as the only program in the state to offer a doctoral degree.
During the summer the College of Criminal Justice announced that a new undergraduate curriculum, to be implemented in the fall, had been designed to broaden career choices. Instead of choosing one of three areas of specialization-law enforcement, correctional studies, or criminal justice-students would pursue a general degree in criminal justice, culminating in either a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science degree.
Early in the year, a strategic plan for the Center was completed under Dean Timothy Flanagan's leadership. Highlights of the plan included the development of the Doctoral Endowment Fund to provide scholarships for graduate students; the continued development of resources and policies to support a high level of scholarly research in criminology and criminal justice; development of a Center-based professional development program for College faculty and Center staff; development of baccalaureate and master's degree programs in the planned University Center facility in Montgomery County; and evaluation and adoption of computer-assisted technologies to enhance the Center's academic and professional education programs.
The College of Criminal Justice began to offer undergraduate courses on several campuses of the North Harris Montgomery Community College District. Classes were expanded in August when Sam Houston joined a consortium of five other universities at the University Center in The Woodlands.
Charles Friel received the University's Excellence in Service Award for 1997.
The Beto Chair lecture series continued to present leading experts in criminal justice policy issues. Speakers included Gerald Gaes of the Federal Bureau of Prisons; Elliott Currie of the University of California at Berkeley; Thomas Constantine, administrator of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration; and Peter Reuter, head of social policy in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland.
The Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas was awarded $5.6 million for the construction of a new building to house the Institute.
The Sam Houston State Board of Regents adopted a resolution of appreciation for Dr. Rolando del Carmen in recognition of his selection as a Piper Professor of 1998.
SHSU headed the National Institute of Justice, Office of Science and Technology’s Advanced Technology Against Crime (ATAC), a program designed to train police agencies in the use of emergent technology.
SHSU joined Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) to form the National Institute for Victim Studies to meet the growing need for quality higher education, professional training, research, and certification in crime victim studies and services.
On June 10, Sam Houston State University officials broke ground on the construction of a permanent headquarters for the Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Institute of Texas, scheduled for completion the following fall.
In August, the College welcomed a new Dean and Director, Dr. Richard Ward. A former New York City detective, Dr. Ward is the author of books and articles on international crime, terrorism, criminal investigation and other law enforcement related topics. He has worked as a consultant or trainer in more than 40 countries, having visited China more than 50 times. Prior to coming to Sam Houston State University, he served 22 years as Vice Chancellor for Administration and Associate Chancellor at the University of Illinois at Chicago following eight years at John Jay College as Dean of Students, Dean of Graduate Studies and Vice President.
On November 2, the Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Building was formally dedicated. The $5.5. million, 30,000-square-foot facility combines traditional, satellite, and online classes for Texas law enforcement management and administrative personnel.
The College received a $1 million grant from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to fund the National Institute for Victim Studies. The Institute, which represents a partnership between Sam Houston State University and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), opened in 1995 at the University of North Texas and was moved to SHSU in 1999.
Associate Dean and Professor Dr. Jurg Gerber was selected as the recipient of a Fulbright Grant. The grant included a yearlong lectureship in Russia.
The Correctional Management Institute received four grants totaling over $320,000. The Governor’s Criminal Justice Division awarded CMIT $166,706 to create the Center for Project Spotlight and another $88,507 to continue the Texas Probation Training Academy. The Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse awarded CMIT $50,000 for continued funding of the Texas Drug Offender Education Program. And the Community Justice Assistance Division of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice awarded $15,000 to conduct research and develop a curriculum dealing with the special needs of female offenders.
The Center established the Institute for Law Enforcement Training (ILET).
Former Dean and Professor Peg Farnworth retired after 10 years with the College. Farnworth served as Acting Dean and Director for the academic year 1998-1999.
On May 26, Texas Governor Rick Perry signed Senate Bill 1421, creating a permanent funding mechanism for the Correctional Management Institute of Texas. In addition to funding existing programs, the bill provides resources for CMIT to provide new training programs in executive development and leadership to adult and juvenile correctional administrators, and to implement long-term planning for service delivery.
The College of Criminal Justice announced a new academic program—the Master of Science in Forensic Science. The College also welcomed three new faculty members, Drs. Carrie Butler, Richard Li, and Holly Miller.
Dr. Charles M. Friel was named Distinguished Professor. As the most prestigious recognition that Sam Houston State University can bestow upon a member of the faculty, the distinguished professor appointment is awarded to those members of the faculty whose professional accomplishments are held in high esteem beyond the boundaries of the campus, the local community, and the state.
Professor Carrie Butler received a $150,000 research analysis grant from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for a study called Project Safe Neighborhood, an initiative to coordinate community resources through the U.S. Attorney’s Office and districts across the United States to reduce federal firearm-related crimes.
The Center received a major library and papers donation from Professor Gordon E. Misner. The donation included almost 50 boxes of books and papers covering a career spanning half a century in law enforcement and criminal justice education. Due to Dr. Misner’s many accomplishments and involvement in major events in criminal justice, the library has significant historical value as a rich source of material that focuses on the planning and policy issues that helped frame the professional direction of policing over the last 50 years.
The CJ Center and the Houston Police Department signed a memorandum of understanding that aims to “substantially increase cooperation between these two departments, eliminate waste of public resources associated with the duplication of efforts, and result in better collection and analysis of data.”
The CJ Center hosted the Annual Conference of the Asian Association of Police Studies, the first time the conference was held in the United States. More than 100 law enforcement officers and researchers, including delegates from Singapore, Poland, England, Turkey, and South Korea, attended the three-day conference which addressed the topic “Terrorism: The Next Page.”
The Center hosted Thailand’s Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, a 1979 doctoral graduate of the College of Criminal Justice. During his visit, Mr. Shinawatra was awarded the university’s highest honor—the Sam Houston Humanitarian Award.
The Correctional Management Institute of Texas was recognized as an “exemplary program” by the Texas Corrections Association. The National Association of Probation Executives also presented CMIT’s Executive Director, Dan Richard Beto, with the George M. Keiser Award for Exceptional Leadership.
Texas Governor Rick Perry signed Senate Bill 1245, which transferred the Crime Victims’ Institute from the Office of the Attorney General to Sam Houston State University.
During Spring Commencement, Professor Sam Souryal was honored with the 2003 Excellence in Service Award. Dr. Souryal’s assignment as representative of the High Commission of Human Rights in Indonesia for the United Nations in 1999 helped to establish the mechanism for the first democratic election the country had seen for many years.
The Correctional Management Institute of Texas held its first of several George J. Beto Correctional Leadership Seminars, one of many new initiatives to assist in the development of emerging leaders in the corrections profession.
Dr. Carrie Butler received a research analysis grant of $150,000 from the U.S. Department of Justice in Houston and was appointed Primary Investigator for the Southern District of Texas as part of Project Safe Neighborhoods, an initiative to reduce firearm-related crimes across the United States.
Dr. Larry Hoover was recognized with the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences’ Founders Award. Nominees for this prestigious award need to have made a lasting contribution not only to the Academy, but also to the field of criminal justice.
Research conducted by Dr. James Marquart and graduate student Chad Trulson was presented in a Supreme Court Case considering the constitutionality of racial segregation in the nation’s prisons. The study examined prisoner on prisoner violence since Texas prisons were desegregate in 1991 and concluded that racial segregation actually causes more violence than does desegregation.
A critical review by Jack Plaxe in the Journal of Counterterrorism & Home Security called the second edition of Extremist Groups a valuable resource that the “government intelligence and security specialist [can] use. . . as a source of public information that can be shared with non-cleared personnel.” The book, compiled by Dean Richard Ward and graduate student Sean Hill is a 961-page book that highlights 222 terrorist groups around the world.
The Center welcomed new faculty members Sparks Veasey, Yan Zhang, Robert Keppel, Willard Oliver, and Kathleen Latz. Also, Professor Janet Mullings was appointed Assistant Dean in the College of Criminal Justice.
SHSU and University of Houston partnered to offer a joint JD/Ph.D. The Agreement allows SHSU criminal justice doctoral students to receive credit for the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree offered by the University of Houston.
The George J. Beto Center was awarded a quarter million-dollar grant from the U.S. Department of Justice to create the National Resource Center for Police-Corrections Partnerships, a project designed to deliver training and technical assistance in developing partnership frameworks for law enforcement and community corrections agencies in at least five regional locations in the United States.
The Center hosted the first annual CJ Summer Camp, designed to provide high school students an intensive introduction to the different facets of the criminal justice system.
The Correctional Management Institute of Texas created a Technical Assistance Center for the purpose of providing specialized services at no cost to institutional and community agencies.
LEMIT launched its Incident Command Simulation Training (INCOSIT) program, an immersive training environment that trains crisis management teams to respond effectively to a variety of man-made and natural disasters. INCOSIT prepares participants to effectively manage and organize the distribution of resources and emergency personnel in response to terrorist attacks, train derailments, hurricanes, hostage taking at a school or university, and more.
Distinguished Professor Charles M. Friel retired after 38 years of loyal service to Sam Houston State University. Correctional Management Institute of Texas executive manager Dan Richard Beto also retired, ending a more than 40-year career in government service.
Professors James Marquart and Rolando del Carmen were recognized at the Academy of Criminal Justice conference in Chicago, in the first instance in the ACJS’s 40-year history in which two individuals from the same institution were recognized in the same year. Dr. Marquart received the ACJS’s highest honor, the Bruce Smith Sr. Award, while Dr. del Carmen received the Academy Founder’s Award, and in so doing became one of only two scholars at that time to receive all three of the Academy's prestigious awards.
The Center welcomed new faculty members Hee-Jong Joo, Brian A. Lawton, Joseph L. Peterson, Jennifer L. Schulenburg, and Victoria Brewer Titterington.
Dean and Director Dr. Richard Ward announced his resignation after almost seven years with the College and the CJ Center. In a special ceremony and reception, Ward was recognized for his years of dedicated service and innovative leadership. At the end of the ceremony, Dr. Ward formally introduced new Dean and Director Dr. Vincent J. Webb. Dr. Webb is one of the nation’s foremost experts on gangs and the director of the Center for the Study of Crime Delinquency. He previously taught at the University of Southern Illinois, Arizona State University West, where he developed and implemented the Arizona State University Center for Violence Prevention and Community Safety, and was chairman of the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.
The College announced a new academic program—the Master of Science in Security Studies.
The Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas (LEMIT) launched its Major Cities Research Initiative, a program designed to provide special assistance to police agencies in Texas’ largest cities. The initiative offers management training to police chiefs in the six largest Texas cities as well as serving as a sustained research and development program focused on crime control in major urban areas.
CMIT welcomed Doug Dretke as its new Executive Director. The College also welcomed new faculty members Drs. Joan A. Bytheway, Jim Dozier, Howard Henderson, Sarah Kerrigan, Scott Menard, Melissa Tackett-Gibson, and Michael S. Vaughn.
The College launched the Institute for Legal Studies in Criminal Justice (ILSCJ), a program designed to help Ph.D. students develop legal scholarship and become more attuned to how the law works within the social sciences and criminal justice.
Distinguished Professor Dr. Rolando del Carmen received the Texas State University System Regents Professorship award, which recognizes exemplary performance and contributions to the educational community at large.
The College received a Texas Department of Transportation grant exceeding $650,000 to help train police officers in identifying drug-impaired drivers.
The College welcomed new faculty members Drs. Gaylene Armstrong, Todd A. Armstrong, David Atilio Gangitano, William Wells, and Jihong (Solomon) Zhao.
The College established a memorandum of understanding with the Zhejiang Police College in Hangzhou, China, creating a new international exchange program in which SHSU College of Criminal Justice faculty teach Chinese police officers in training.
Professor Raymond Teske, Jr., received the prestigious Humbolt Research Award and embarked on a research stay at the Max Plank Institute for Foreign and International Penal Law in Freiburg, Germany.
Dean and Director Vincent Webb, along with co-author Charles M. Katz, received the ACJS (Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences) Outstanding Book Award for their book Policing Gangs in America. Construction began on the new Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS), a facility that allows researchers to scientifically study the decomposition of human remains to enable law enforcement officials, medical examiners, and crime scene investigators to more accurately determine critical information such as timing and circumstances of death.
Professor Mitchel Roth was named an “Academic Fellow” by the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies and accepted a fellowship to Tel-Aviv Israel.
The College welcomed new faculty members Drs. Cortney Franklin, Travis Franklin, Ling Ren, and Jorn Yu.