BIO 245 - Human Anatomy
                                            Outline of Lecture Notes

                                                              first test lectures

* Please note: these notes are not "all you need" to prepare for the test, but will give an outline of the material that was covered in lecture
 
 
 
Chapter 2

Cell Biology
Human Cell Types
• Sex Cells – divide & combine with others
– Sperm
– Oocyte
• Somatic Cells – Divide to reproduce similar cells
– About 200 types

Cells
Parts of a Cell
• Organelles
– Cellular machinery
• Cytosol
– Liquid matrix
• Inclusions 
– Non-living material
• Cell Membrane
– Contains the cell

Cell Membrane
• Barrier to outside
• Double phospholipid layer
• Polar
– Hydrophilic heads
– Hydrophobic tails
• Contains dispersed proteins and lipids

Mitochondria
• ATP synthesis
– ADP + P = ATP
• Change shape continuously
• High densities in energy using cells
• DNA & RNA are self-replicating
– Purple bacterium origin?

Ribosomes
• Manufacture proteins
• Location
– Free in cytosol
– Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
• Made of subunits

Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 
– Synthesizes lipids and steroids
– Lipid metabolism
– Drug detoxification
– No ribosomes
• Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 
– Synthesizes 
• Phospholipids
• Cholesterol
– Has attached ribosomes

Golgi Apparatus
• Packages and modifies proteins
– Some incorporated in plasma membrane
– Some secreted

Secretory vesicles
• Lysosomes
– Contain digestive enzymes
– Sites of intracellular digestion
• Peroxisomes
– Oxidase enzymes
– Detoxify toxins

Cytoskeleton
• Internal framework of proteins
• Three types
– Microfilaments 
• Cellular movements
• Muscle contraction
– Intermediate filaments
• Resist mechanical forces
– Microtubules
• Support cell
• Form centrioles

Microvilli
• Small projections of cell membrane
• Composition is like cell membrane

Cilia
• 9 pair of microtubules
• Beat rhythmically
• Cell movement or moving materials past cells

Flagella
• The only human flagellated cell is the sperm cell
• Like long cilia 
• Used for movement

Nucleus
• Largest organelle
– Control center of cell
• Surrounded by nuclear envelope
– Like cell membrane with pores
• Contains
– Nucleoplasm 
– Nucleoli
– Chromatin

Nucleolus
• Body inside nucleus
• Manufactures ribosomes

Chromatin
• Composed of DNA and histone proteins
• Genes that program cells and cell function

Cell Processes
• Cancer
– Abnormal cell growth and proliferation
– Types
• Benign = tumor
– Local
– Encapsulated 
– Does not spread
• Malignant
– Non-encapsulated
– Metastisis = movement to other areas

Clinical Aspects of Cell Anatomy
• Anaplasia
– Abnormality in cell structure
– Example: some cancer cells do not resemble parent cells
• Dysplasia
– Change in cell size shape, or arrangement due to irritation or inflammation
• Hyperplasia
– Excessive cell proliferation
– Cells remain normal
– Causes enlargement of the area 
• Hypertrophy
– Growth of an organ due to increase in size of cells
– Can be a result of exercise
• Muscle cells enlarge
– Can be pathological
• Necrosis
– Death of cells
– Can be accidental, pathological or programmed
• Apoptosis
– Programmed cell death
 

Chapter 3

Embryology
Human Development
• Stages
– Zygote formation
• Fertilization of egg 
– Embryo 
• First two months
– Fetus 
• 2 months to 9 months
– Growth and Maturity

Developmental Stage Terminology 
• Prenatal period
– Conception to birth
• Embryonic period
– First 8 weeks
– Ends when all organ systems are formed
• Fetal period
– 30 weeks before birth

Ovulation
• Releases oocyte from ovary
• Oocyte is a haploid cell
• Oocyte moves down uterine tube

Fertilization
• Occurs in ampulla of uterine tube
• Combination of sperm and oocyte
• Results in a zygote

Blastomeres
• Zygote undergoes mitosis 
• Daughter cells are called blastomeres
• Cleavage
– Sequence of forming blastomeres
– Division without growth

Morula
• 12-16 Blastomeres to about 60 cells
• 72 hours after fertilization
• Embryo takes up fluid
• Still in uterine tube

Blastocyst
• Forms from morula
• Cells surrounding fluid cavity
• Stage lasts about 3 days (days 4-7)
• Starts process of implantation

Two Layered Embryo
• Two cell layers differentiate at 9 days
• Extensions of sheets for 2 fluid filled sacs
– Amnion
– Yolk 
• Growth of embryo begins

Three Layered Embryo
• Germ layer formation starts on day 14-15
• Three distinctly different layers
– Endoderm – inside
– Mesoderm – middle
– Ectoderm - outside

Mesodermal Differentiation
• Mesoderm divides into sections during 3rd week
• Refining of layers begins

A Body Takes Shape
• Around week 4 
• Derivatives of germ layers start to form
• Tissue layer folding is an important process

Membrane Development
• Four membranes are now formed
– Amnion
– Yolk sac
– Chorion
– Alantois
(ah-lan’ to is)

Derivatives of Germ Layers
• Ectoderm
– Brain 
– Spinal Cord
– Sensory nerves
– Skin and its derivatives

Derivatives of Germ Layers
• Endoderm
– Internal linings
– Many glands
• Mesoderm
– Everything else
• Organs
• Skeleton
• Muscles
• Blood vessels 

The 1 Month Embryo 

Second Month Development
• Limb buds appear
• Changes from tadpole-like to human-like
• All organ systems develop

Fetal Period
• Week 9-38
• Maturation of systems
• Rapid growth

Clinical Terms
• Conjoined twins
– Also known as Siamese twins
– Identical twins born joined together
– Caused by incomplete division of inner cell mass during twinning process
• Ectopic Pregnancy
– Embryo implants outside the uterus
– Sometimes called a tubal pregnancy
– Unable to establish a placenta
– Almost always results in death of embryo or fetus
• Teratology
– Study of birth defects and their causes
– Teratogen = anything that causes a birth defect
 


 
Chapter 4

Tissues
• Related cells that work together
• May include non-living material

Tissue Types
• 4 general categories
– Epithelial tissue
• Coverings 
– Connective tissue
• Support & protection
– Muscle tissue
• Movement 
– Nervous tissue
• Control

Epithelial Tissue
• Body surface coverings
– External
– Internal 
• Recognition key
– No other tissue on one side
– Cells joined to like cells

Epithelial Tissue Characteristics
• Cellularity
– Almost entirely cells
• Special contacts
– Cells are joined at many points
• Polarity
– Free upper surface
– Basement membrane
• Support by connective tissue
• Avascular
• Innervated
• Regenerate easily

Naming of Epithelial Tissue
• Number of Cell Layers
• Example:
– Simple squamous epithelial tissue
• Type or Shape of Cells
• Example:
– Simple squamous epithelial tissue

Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue
• Resembles tile floor
• Allows absorption and secretion
• Reduces friction
• Lines organs
– Blood vessels
– Heart
– Body cavity
– Organs 

Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue
• Resembles string of beads
• Usually associated with secretions
• Commonly found in small glands
– Also kidney tubules 
– Surface of ovary

Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue
• Tall cells with oval nuclei
• Sometimes with cilia
• Often associated with goblet cells
– Mucous producing
• Secretion and absorption
• Digestive, respiratory, uterine tubes, gall bladder

Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
• Most common stratified tissue
• Basal cells may appear cuboidal or columnar
• Outer cells may be keratinized
• Function
– Protects underlying tissue
• Location 
– Skin
– Mouth 
– Esophagus 
– Anus 
– Vagina 

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue
• Rare tissue type
• Function 
– Protection
– Secretion
– Absorption

• Location 
– Large ducts of some glands
– Male urethra

Stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
• Rare tissue type
• Function = protection
• Location
– Some glands
– Male urethra
– Anus
– Upper digestive & respiratory systems

Transitional Epithelial Tissue
• May have all epithelial cell types
• Shape depends upon degree of stretching
• Function: allows for stretching & recoil
• Location: urinary system, especially bladder

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
• Cells not uniformly shaped
• Appear to form 2 cell layers
• Most often with cilia
• Function: mucous secretion & propulsion
• Location: respiratory tract, large glands, male urethra

Glandular Epithelia
• Epithelial tissue often contains gland cells
– Produce secretions
– Epithelial cells that release materials
• Types of gland cells
– Endocrine
– Exocrine 

Endocrine Glands
• Release secretions into interstitial fluid
– (between cells)
• Ductless
• Secretes hormones

Exocrine Glands
• Secretions released onto epithelial surfaces
• Uses ducts to deliver secretions
• Examples:
– Mucous
– Sweat
– Oil 
– salivary

Modes of Exocrine Secretion
• Merocrine
– Secretion by exocytosis
– Examples
• Mucous glands
• Salivary glands
• Sweat glands
• Apocrine 
– Secretion by pinching-off
– Example
• Mammary glands
• Holocrine
– Secretion by rupturing
– Example 
• Sebaceous (oil) gland

Connective Tissue
• Cells and non-living extracellular material
– Ground substance
• Interstitial fluid
• Adhesion proteins 
= tissue glue
• Proteoglycans
– Makes matrix rigid 
– Fibers 
• Collagen
– White fibers
– High tensile strength
» Stronger than steel
• Elastic
– Yellow fibers
– Protein elastin
• Reticular
– Like collagen with different arrangement

Connective Tissue
• Cells 
– Secrete ground substance
– Named according to tissue type
• Mesenchyme is the common origin for all connective tissue
– From mesoderm
• Varying degrees of vascularity

Functions of Connective Tissue
• Support and binding
• Protection
• Storage
– Energy 
– Minerals
• Insulation
• Transportation of substances

Mesenchymal Tissue
• Embryonic connective tissue
• Star shaped stem cells
• Fluid matrix with fine fibers
• Most common in embryo

Areolar Connective Tissue
• Cell = fibroblast
– Macrophages
– Mast cells
– White blood cells
• Matrix = gel-like
– All 3 fiber types

Areolar Connective Tissue
• Function 
– Support & protect organs
– Holds fluid
• Location 
– Under epithelial tissues
– Around organs and capillaries 

Adipose Tissue
• Cell = adipocyte
– Most of cell is a lipid droplet
• Matrix = same as areolar, but less
• Function
– Nutrient storage
– Insulation 
– Protection 
• Location
– Under skin 
– Within bones
– Around kidneys
– Female breasts
• Tissue is richly vascularized

Reticular Connective Tissue
• Cell = fibroblast
– Also macrophages
• Matrix 
– Gel-like
– Only reticular fibers
• Function
– Soft support
• Location
– Lymphoid organs

Dense Regular Connective Tissue
• Cell 
– Rows of fibroblasts
• Matrix
– Closely packed wavy collagen
– Some elastin
– Little fluid
• Function 
– Attachments of muscle & bone
• Location
– Tendons
– Ligaments 
• One form is Elastic Tissue
– More elastin

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
• Cell  = fibroblast
• Matrix like dense regular, but collagen fibers are thicker & interwoven
• Function = withstands tension in many directions
• Location
– Dermis of skin
– Submucosa of digestive tract
– Some organs & joints

Hyaline Cartilage
• Cell 
– Chondrocyte
– Found in lacunae
• Matrix
– Closely packed collagen fibers
• Function 
– Support
– Resist compressive stress
• Location
– Most common cartilage
– Embryonic skeleton
– Ends of large bones
– Part of ribs
– Nose 
– trachea

Elastic Cartilage
• Cell 
– Chondrocyte
• Matrix
– Like Hyaline with elastic fibers
• Function
– Structure & flexibility
• Location
– External ear
– epiglottis

Fibrocartilage 
• Cell
– Chondrocyte
• Matrix
– Thick collagen fibers
– Less firm than hyaline cartilage
• Function 
– Tensile strength
– Ability to absorb compressive shock
• Location
– Intervertebral discs
– Pubic symphysis
– Discs of knee joint

Osseous Tissue
• Cell type
– Osteoblast
– Osteoclast
– Osteocyte
• Matrix 
– Hard calcified material
– Many collagen fibers
• Function
– Support
– Protection 
– Muscle attachment
– Mineral storage
• Location 
– Bone 

Fluid Connective Tissue
• Blood & Lymph
• Cell
– Erythrocytes
– Leukocytes
• Matrix 
– Plasma
– Lymph
– Platelets
– Clotting fibers
• Function = transport gasses, nutrients & waste
• Location = blood & lymph vessels

Membranes
• Made of epithelial and connective tissue
• Protects other body tissues
• Four basic types
– Mucous membrane
• Lines cavities
– Serous membrane
• Seals body cavity divisions
– Cutaneous membrane
• Skin
– Synovial membrane
• Lines joint cavity

Muscle Tissue
• Muscle fibers = muscle cells
• Well vascularized
• Function = body movement

Skeletal Muscle
• Multinucleate cells
– Long
– At cell edge
• Striated
• Function = voluntary movement
• Location
– Usually attached to bone

Cardiac Muscle
• Uninucleate cell
• Striated
• Function
– Involuntary control of heart
• Location
– Only in heart
– Attached to other cardiac muscle at intercalated disc

Smooth Muscle
• Cell
– Central single nucleus
– Spindle shaped
• Not Striated
• Function
– Involuntary movement of substances
• Location 
– Mostly in hollow organs

Nervous Tissue
• Makes nervous system
• Cell processes may be very long
• Regulates and controls body functions
• Cells
– Neurons
– neuroglia

Related Clinical Terms
• Carcinoma
– Cancer arising in the epithelium
– Includes 90% of human cancers
– Includes lung, breast, prostate, colon, & others
• Sarcoma
– Cancer of mesenchyme derived tissues
• muscle or connective tissue
• Lesion
– Injury, wound or infection that affects an area of tissue
 

 

Chapter  5

Integumentary System
• The skin and its derivatives
• Function is mostly protective
• = Cutaneous membrane
– Epidermis and Dermis
– Underlain by hypodermis
• Mostly adipose tissue

Epidermis
• Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
– Keratin = hardening protein
• Thin skin
– 4 layers
• Thick skin
– 5 layers
– Found only on hands and feet

Layers of Epidermis
• Stratum corneum
– Horny layer
– 20-30 cell layers thick
– Waterproof layer
– Dead layer
– Source of dandruff
• Stratum lucidum
– Clear layer
– Rows of dead keratinocytes
– Found only in thick skin
• Stratum granulosum
– Granular layer
– 3-5 layers of flat keratinocytes
– Waterproof layer
• Stratum spinosum
– Spiny layer
– Several layers thick
• Stratum basale
– Basal layer
– Rapid mitotic activity
– Produces other layers

Cells of Epidermis
• Epithelial cells = keratinocytes
– Most of epidermis
• Basal cells 
– Epithelial cells undergoing rapid mitosis
• Merkel cells 
– In stratum basale
– Touch receptors associated with sensory neurons
• Langerhan’s cells
– In stratum spinosum
– Arise from bone marrow
– Macrophages that activate the immune system
• Melonocytes
– Synthesize melanin
– Make pigments go give skin color

Skin Color
• Melanocytes
– All races have about the same number 
– More melanin produced = darker skin
– Actual pigment color
• Brown
• Yellow-brown
• Black
– Melanin protects against UV radiation
• Carotene
– Orange-yellow pigment
– Sequestered in skin
– Can be converted to vitamin A
• Hemoglobin
– Gives skin a pink tone
– Masked by darker pigment
– Source is blood in dermis

Dermis
• Mostly dense irregular connective tissue
• Many nerves and blood vessels
• Many accessory structures
– Hair follicles
– Oil glands
– Sweat glands
– others

Layers of Dermis
• Papillary layer
– Epidermal ridges
• Genetically derived
• Give fingerprints
• Projections = dermal papillae
– Contains Meisner’s corpuscles
• Touch receptors
• Reticular layer
– Dense irregular connective tissue

Hair
• Epidermal cells with hard keratin
• Does not flake like stratum corneum
• Originates in hair follicles
• Color from melanocytes
– White hair = air bubbles replace melanocytes

Structures of Hair Follicle
• Hair bulb
– Epithelial cells
• Hair papilla
– Connective tissue
– Connects to dermal tissue
• Arrector pilli
– Smooth muscle that raises hair
• Heat retention
• Makes animal look larger
• Root hair plexus
– Touch receptor

Hair Distribution
• Few places without
– Lips 
– Nipples
– Palms & soles
– Part of genitalia
• Two types
– Vellus – fine hair
– Terminal – heavy, pigmented hair
• Scalp, eyebrows, pubic
• Secondary sexual characteristics
– Controlled by androgens

Nails 
• Scale-like modification of epidermis
• Contains hard Keratin

Sweat Glands
• Function
– Release fluid to cool surface of skin 
– Excrete water, waste, and electrolytes
– Discourages microorganism growth
• pH = 4-6
• Sometimes called sudoriferous glands

Types of Sweat Glands
• Apocrine
– Armpits, groin, around nipples
– Ducts open into hair follicles
– Odor associated with bacteria
– Start to function at puberty
• Merocrine
– Widely distributed
– Most common
• Forehead
• Palms
• Soles
• Duct extends to pore
• Gland structure similar to appocrine

Sebaceous Glands
• Produce oily secretion = sebum
• Usually associated with hair follicle
• Soften & lubricate hair
• Contains bacteria killing substance
• Activated at puberty
• Stimulated by hormones
• Pimple = duct blocked by sebum and dirt

Ceruminous Gland
• Modified sweat gland
• Produces wax = cerumin or ear wax
• Function 
– Traps foreign materials
– Deters insects

Mammary Gland
• Modified apocrine sweat gland
• Secretes milk 
• Usually only active after birth of child

Skin Cancer
• Cancer = abnormal growth and proliferation of cells
• Benign
– Encapsulated 
– Do not spread
• Malignant
– Not encapsulated
– Metastisizes = moves
• Basal Cell Carcinoma
– Most common skin cancer
– Least malignant
– Usually on sun exposed areas
– Slow growing
• Squamous cell carcinoma 
– Usually small round elevation
– Usually on scalp, ears, hands, lower lip
– Grows rapidly
– Metastasizes to lymph nodes if not removed
– Chance for recovery is good
• Malignant melanoma
– Cancer of melanocytes
– Looks like spreading brown to black patch
– Metastasizes to lymph and blood vessels
– Survival rate is low

Related Clinical Terms
• Alopecia 
– Baldness
• Hairs break off before emerging from skin
• Hair follicles are dead
• Boils and Carbuncles
– Infection & inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands
• Cold sores
– Also called fever blisters
– Caused by herpes simplex virus
– Often activated by emotional stress or fever
• Otherwise remains dormant
• Decubitus ulcer
– Bed sore
– Breakdown of skin due to reduction in blood supply
• Impetigo
– Fluid filled lesion around mouth & nose
– Often develops a yellow crust after breaking
– Caused by staphylococcus infection
• Psoriasis
– Silvery scales caused by over proliferation of skin
– Recurrent
– Affects 2% of Americans to some extent
• Vitiligo
– Abnormality of skin pigmentation
– Absence of pigment in some regions of body
 

Chapter 6

Skeletal System
Functions of Skeletal System
• Provide body support
• Protect delicate tissues and organs
• Movement 
• Storage of minerals and lipids
• Blood cell formation

Cartilage
• Usually associated with bone
• Found throughout the adult skeleton
• 3 types
– Hyaline Cartilage
– Elastic Cartilage
– Fibrocartilage 

Classification of Bones
• Long
– Longer than wide
– Shaft & 2 enlarged ends
• Short
– Cube-like
• Flat 
– Thin, flattened, slightly curved
• Irregular
– Complex shapes

Bone Structure
• Two basic types of osseous tissue
– Compact = dense
– Spongy = open network or beams
• Beams = trabeculae
• Many bones are a combination of the two types

Anatomy of Long Bones
• Diaphysis = shaft
– Outside compact bone
– Central medullary cavity
• Contains marrow
• Epiphysis = end
– Exterior compact
– Interior spongy
– Surface with layer of hyaline cartilage

Anatomy of Other Bone Types
• Outer compact bone
• Central spongy bone
– Called diploë
– Contains red bone marrow

Types of Bone Marrow
• Yellow
– Mostly fat cells
• Red 
– Blood cells and stem cells that produce them
– Locations
• Flat bones
• Head of femur and humerus

Bone Histology
• Osteon (= Haversian system) structures
– Haversian canal
• Central canal
• Only in long bones
• Contains blood vessels and nerves
– Volkman’s canal
• Perforating canal
• Only in long bones
• Right angles and same function as Haversian
• Osteon (= Haversian system) structures
– Lamella
• Layers of matrix
– Lacunae
• Cavities holding osteocytes
– Canaliculi
• Canals that connect lacunae to central canal

Bone Cells
• Osteogenic cell – mesenchymal stem cell
• Osteoblast – produce new bone matrix (osteogenesis)
• Osteocytes – mature bone cell, become surrounded by matrix, recycle matrix, can revert to osteoblast for repairs
• Osteoclast – removes bone matrix using acids and enzymes

Membranes around Bone Tissue
• Periosteum
– Outside = dense irregular connective tissue
– Inside = osteoblasts and osteoclasts 
– Richly supplied with blood vessels
– Sharpey’s fibers = collagen tufts that extend into bone
• Endostium 
– Similar in structure to periosteum
– Covers trabeculae in spongy bone
– Bound in bone marrow cavity

Bone Strength
• Structural elements of bones are aligned with direction of stress

Bone Development
• Fetal skeleton is first cartilage
• Cartilage is gradually replaced by bone
– Process is called ossification
– Two types of ossification
• Intramembranous 
• Endochondral 

Intramembranous Ossificaton
• Common in flat, short, & irregular bones
– Mesenchymal cells cluster to form ossification center
– Developing bone grows outward
– Some spongy bone is remodeled to form compact form

Endochondral Ossification
• Common in long bone formation
– Area around chondrocytes of hyaline tissue calcifies
– Chondrocytes are deprived of O2 and dye
– Blood vessels grow around cartilage
– Perichondrial cells convert to osteoblasts

Growth of long bone
• Hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plate grow while older regions ossify
• Bone is continually remodeled 

Endochondral Ossification
– Osteoblasts produce spongy bone
– Remodeling occurs after bone formation spreads
– Capillaries & osteoblasts migrate to epiphysis to form secondary ossification centers
– Remodeling occurs

Appositional Growth
• Increases thickness
• Bone at surface produces ridges
• Ridges enlarge to create pockets
• Ridges meet & fuse to leave canals with vessels and nerves
• Process continues along with remodeling 

Homeostatic Imbalances
• Osteopenia
– Inadequate ossification
• Osteoporosis
– Bone absorption outpaces deposition
– Fractures common
– Spongy bone in spine is most vulnerable
– More common in elderly women
• Estrogen wanes
• Osteomalacia
– Soft bones
– Bones fracture and bend
– Very painful
• Rickets
– Lack of vitamin D or calcium during growth
– Bowed legs
– Deformed pelvis
• Paget’s Disease
– Excessive abnormal bone formation
– Usually localized
– Bones are often soft
• Not enough minerals during formation
– Rarely seen before age 40
• Osteosarcoma 
– Bone cancer
– Usually between ages 10-25
– Survival rate is about 50% with amputaion
• Bone spur
– Abnormal projection at one site of bone due to overgrowth
– Common in aging bones
 
 

 

Chapter 7&8

The Skeleton
Axial Skeleton
• Skull
– 22 bones
– Most are interlocked by joints called sutures
– Two parts
• Cranium 
• Facial bones
• 6 auditory ossicles
• Hyoid bone

Paranasal Sinuses
• Cluster around nasal cavity
• Parts of specific bones
• Lighten skull
• Enhance resonance of voice
• Warm and humidify air

Axial Skeleton
• Thoracic cage
• Vertebral column

Vertebral Column
• Axial support of trunk
• Protects spinal cord
• Provides for rib attachment
• Ligaments and muscles keep vertebrae in line

Intervertebral Discs
• Acts as cushion-like pads
• Inner nucleus pulposus is semi-fluid
• Annulus fibrosus
– Outer ring
– Fibrocartilage 
• Thickest in lumbar & cervical area
• Herniated disc
– Rupture of annulus fibrosus

Spinal Curvature
• Vertebral column has a normal curve
• Curvature changes between regions
– Cervical C1-C7
– Thoracic T1-T12
– Lumbar L1-L5
– Sacrum (5 fused)
– Coccyx (4 fused)

Abnormal spine curvatures
• Scoliosis
– Abnormal lateral
• Kyphosis
– Hunch back
– Osteoporosis
– Tuberculosis of spine
– Rickets 
• Lordosis
– Swayback
– Spinal tuberculosis
– Temporary 
• Pregnance
• Beer belly

Bony Thorax
• Protects thoracic cavity
• Allows for muscle attachment
• Parts of bony thorax
– Ribs
– Sternum
• Allows for breathing
• Costal cartilage connects sternum with ribs

Appendicular Skeleton
• Limbs
• Girdles
– Pectoral girdle
– Pelvic girdle
• Allows for movement

Pelvic Structure
• Sexes can be identified from pelvis
• Female pelvis is modified for childbearing
– Wider
– Shallower
– lighter

Arches of Food
• Food can hold body weight only if it is arched
• Foot arches
– 2 longitudinal
• High median
• Low lateral
– 1 transverse
• Arches maintained by interlocking shape  of bones

Aspects of Skeleton Development
• Fontanelles
– Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes
– Allows head to be compressed during birth
– Accommodates growth of brain
– Anterior present for 1½ to 2 years

Bone Markings
• Surface features of bone
• Some are sites for attachments
– Tendons
– Ligaments 
• Some are openings
– Nerves 
– Blood vessels
 

Chapter 9

Articulations or Joints
• Sites where 2 or more bones meet
• Function 
– Hold skeleton together
– Provide mobility
• Weakest part of the skeleton

Types of Joints
• Synarthrosis
– Immovable joints
– May be fibrous or cartilaginous
– Three types
• Sutures
• Gomphosis
• Synchondroses
• Suture
– Occur only in skull
– Short fibers of dense connective tissue
– Fibers become ossified
• = synostosis or bone junctions
– Bones also integrate
• Gomphosis
– Peg in socket fibrous joint
– Articulates tooth in socket
– Connective tissue = peridontal ligament
• Synchondroses
– Bar or plate of hyaline cartilage
– Sites 
• Epiphyseal plate
– Later becomes ossified and immovable
• Costal cartilage
– Attaches ribs to sternum

Joint Types
• Amphiarthrosis
– Slightly moveable joint
– Less stable than synarthrosis
– Types
• Syndesmosis
• Symphesis
• Syndesmosis
– Bones connected by a cord or sheet of fibrous tissue
• Cord = ligament
• Sheet = interosseous membrane
– Functionally moveable
• Symphesis
– Band of fibrocartilage
– Slightly moveable
– Examples
• Intervetebral disc
• Pubic symphysis

Joint Types
• Diarthosis
– Freely moveable joints
– Synovial joint
• Bones separated by fluid filled cavity
• Includes most joints

Features of Synovial Joints
• Articular Cartliage
– Hyaline cartilage
– Covers opposing bone surfaces
– Keeps bone ends from being crushed
• Joint cavity
– Fluid filled space between bones
• Articular Capsule
– External flexible fibrous capsule
• Continuous with periosteum of bone
– Synovial membrane
• Lines fibrous capsule
• Loose connective tissue
• Synovial fluid
– In joint cavity
– From blood filtrate
– “egg white” consistency
– Reduces friction
– Absorbs shock in joints
– Distributes nutrients
– Has phagocytic cells
• Ligaments
– Accessory ligaments
• Thickenings of capsule
• Reinforce capsule
• Strengthen capsule
• Limit rotation of joint
– Extracapsular ligaments
• Pass outside capsule
• Fat Pads
– Only in some joints
– Between capsule and membrane
– Protect articular cartilage
• Articular discs
– Meniscus of fibrocartilage
– Improve fit for stability
– Only in a few joints
• Tendons
– Not part of articulation
– Limits range of motion
– Provides mechanical support
• Bursae 
– Not part of joint
– Bag of lubricant
• Flattened fibrous sac
• Filled with synovial fluid
• False bursae may develop if needed

Reasons Synovial Joints are Stable
• Articular surfaces
– Shape controls movement
• Ligaments and tendons
– Direct bone movement
• Muscle tone
– Keeps articulation in line
• Other bones and fat pads
• Fibers of joint capsule

Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints
• Gliding motions
– One flat bone glides over a similar surface
– Ex: intercarpal joints
• Angular movements
– Change angle between bones
– Many different angular movements

Types of Synovial Joints
• Gliding Joint or Plane Joint
– Articulation surfaces are flat
– Short slipping movements
– Ex: intercarpal joints
• Hinge Joint
– Projection of one bone fits into another
– Works like hinge
– For flexion and extension
– Ex: elbow
• Pivot Joint
– Rounded end of one bone fits into ring of another
– Allows rotation of one bone
– Ex: radius & ulna articulation
• Condyloid Joint
– Oval articulation of 1 bone fits into concavity of another
– Permits angular movements
– Ex: knuckle
• Saddle Joint
– Articulation has concave & convex areas
– Resembles condyloid with more movement
– Ex: thumb
• Ball & Socket Joint
– Round head of bone fits into socket of another
Ex: hip and shoulder
 

BIO 245 – Human Anatomy
Exam 1 – Spring 2002

Answer each of the following questions with the best choice.  There is only one correct choice per question. (2 points each)

1.  __C__  Which of the following parts of a cell is made of non-living particles?
 A.  Organelles                  B.  Cytosol
 C.  Inclusions                   D.  Cell Membrane

2.  __C__  Which of the following is defined as excessive cell proliferation, but the cell remains normal?
 A.  Anaplasia                   B.  Dysplasia
 C.  Hyperplasia                D.  Cancer

3.  __B_   Where does fertilization of an oocyte by a sperm cell occur?
 A.  Follicle of the Ovary               B.  Ampulla of the Uterine Tube
 C.  Body of the Uterus                 D.  Vagina

4.  __C__  Which of the following modes of exocrine secretion is secretion by rupturing?
 A.  Merocrine                  B.  Apocrine
 C.  Holocrine                   D.  Endocrine

5.  __C__  Which of the following layers of the epidermis is the outside waterproof layer of dead cells?
 A.  Stratum spinosum          B.  Stratum basale
 C.  Stratum corneum           D.  Stratum granulosum

6.  __D__  Which of the following glands produces sebum (oil)?
 A.  Mammary gland            B.  Ceruminous gland
 C.  Sweat gland                  D.  Sebaceous gland

7.  __B__  Which of the following conditions is most dangerous?
 A.  Alopecia                          B.  Malignant melanoma
 C.  Basal cell carcinoma        D.  Squamous cell carcinoma

8.  __B___  Which of the following skin conditions is characterized by recurrent silvery scales caused by an over proliferation of skin?
 A.  Vitiligo                             B.  Psoriasis
 C.  Impetigo                          D.  Decubitus ulcer

9.  __C__  Which of the following bone cells is responsible for absorption of bone and is usually found just inside the periostium?
 A.  Osteocyte                       B.  Osteoblast
 C.  Osteoclast                      D.  Osteogenic cell

10.  __D__  Which of the following homeostatic bone imbalances is caused by bone absorption outpacing bone deposition?
 A.  Osteopenia                     B.  Osteosarcoma
 C.  Paget’s disease               D.  Osteoporosis
 

Fill in the blank with a term that will make the sentence correct. (2 points each)

11.  _Cilia   are composed of 9 pair of microtubules, and beat rhythmically to move materials past the cell.

12.  A _benign_ cancer is a tumor that does not spread because it is encapsulated.

13.  _Apoptosis  is defined as programmed cell death.

14.  The _embryo  is the human developmental stage that occurs in the first 8 weeks after fertilization.

15.  The _arrector pilli_ is smooth muscle that raises individual hairs.

16.  _Vellus_  hair is the hair type that is unpigmented and so fine that it is essentially unseen.

17.  The _diaphysis_  is the technical term for the shaft of a long bone.

18.  The _lacunae_ is a cavity in bone matrix that holds the osteocyte.

19.  The _lamellae_  are layers of matrix in bone tissue around the central canal.

20.  A _gomphosis_  is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint that articulates the tooth in its socket.

Match the following terms with the best association from the left column.  There is only one correct match for each term. (1 point each)

21.      B  _   ATP synthesis                                 A.  Cell Membrane
                                                                           B.  Mitochondria
22.  __K__  DNA and histones                           C.  Ribosomes
                                                                           D.  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
23.  __F__  Modifies & packages proteins           E.  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
                                                                            F.  Golgi Apparatus
24.  __C__  Produce proteins                              G.  Lysosomes
                                                                            H.  Peroxisomes
25.  __H__  Contain oxidase enzymes                   I.  Cytoskeleton
                                                                             J.  Nucleolus
                                                                            K.  Chromatin

Match the following tissue types with the cell found in that tissue from the column on the right.  There is only one correct match for each term, but terms can be used more than once. (1 point each)

26.  __B__  Bone tissue                                        A.  Fibroblast
                                                                             B.  Osteocyte
27.  __A__  Areolar connective tissue                   C.  Erythrocyte
                                                                             D.  Adipocyte
28.  __E___  Hyaline cartilage                               E.  Chondrocyte

29.  __C__  Blood tissue

30.  __A__  Dense regular connective tissue

Give a short answer for each of the following questions.  In some cases a list will be sufficient in others a sentence or two will be required.  Only answer what is asked.  If you include extra information, and it is wrong, you will lose points. (5 points each)

31.  List the three embryonic germ layers and tell which layer will be on the inside, and which will be on the outside of the developing embryo.

 1.  Endoderm - inside

 2.  Mesoderm

 3.  Ectoderm - outside

32.  List the four membranes that form during the embryonic stage of development

 1.  Amnion

 2.  Alantois

 3.  Yolk Sac

 4.  Chorion

33.  List five general characteristics of epithelial tissue

 1.  Cellularity – composed entirely of cells

 2.  Polarity – no tissue on one side

 3.  Special contacts – cells are tightly bound together

 4.  Supported by connective tissue (a basement membrane)

 5.  Avascular

       Innervated

        Regenerates easily

34.  List three types of pigment that gives skin its color and tell the source of each of these pigments.
 
 1.  Melanin – produced in melanocytes

 2.  Carotene – derived from the diet (carrots and other vegetables)

 3.  Hemoglobin – carried in the blood

35.  Tell what paranasal are, and give their functions.

 Paranasal sinuses are hollow areas of bones found around the nasal cavity.  Their function is to (1) lighten the skull, (2) warm air coming into the respiratory system, (3) humidify incoming air, and (4) give resonance to the voice.

36.  List three types of abnormal spine curvatures and tell which one is an abnormal lateral curvature.

 1.  Scoliosis – an abnormal lateral curvature

 2.  Kyphosis

 3.  Lordosis

37.  List five structures that are part of a synovial joint.

 1.  Articular cartilage

 2.  External fibrous capsule

 3.  Synovial membrane

 4.  Synovial fluid

 5.  Ligaments

      Fat pads

      Articular discs

38.  List five reasons that synovial joints are stable

 1.  Articular surfaces

 2.  Ligaments

 3.  Tendons

 4.  Muscle tone

 5.  Other bones
 
       Fat pads

       Fibers of the joint capsule

39.  Write an essay or make a chart to explain the differences between the three types of muscle tissue.  Include characteristics of the tissue, location in the body and any other information that can be used to distinguish between them. (10 points).
 
 
              Type       Attachments         Location        Characters
Skeletal Muscle Attach to bone via tendons  Usually attached to the skeleton Multinucleate
Striated
Nuclei at edge of cells
Very long cells
Voluntary control
Cardiac Muscle Attached at intercolated discs to other cardiac cells Only in the heart Uninucleate
Striated 
Nucleus in center of cells
Square cells
Involuntary control
Smooth Muscle  Attached to other smooth muscle Around hollow organs Uninucleate
Nucleus in center of cells
Spindle-shaped cells
Involuntary control