Summer 2002


Welcome to the Summer issue of Professional Issues in Counseling. We are pleased to highlight articles from several graduate students in this issue, two who are doctoral students and one a master's level student. One of the goals of this journal is to encourage new professionals in their writing endeavors, and we are pleased that several of the current articles were written by this group.

Since the field of counseling is quite broad and we intend to represent many segments of this professional arena in Professional Issues in Counseling, we want to encourage the readers to consider submitting manuscripts from diverse areas such as research, position statements, creative writing, etc.

Due to technical problems with the software application we were unable to follow APA 5th edition format as precisely as we would like to. However, all authors did submit their articles in accordance with APA formatting standards. We are working to resolve this problem.


Labeling theory as a paradigm for the etiology of prison rape: Implications for understanding and intervention

Robert D. Hanser
Sam Houston State University


The prison subculture consists of beliefs and attitudes that condone and support prison rape. For victims of prison rape, potential recourse from such victimization is greatly limited because of this subculture. A subculture of prison violence prevents many of these victims from conceding to repeated incidents of victimization that ultimately force the inmate-victim into a forced role of dominance and subservience. A labeling theory paradigm is presented to explain the complex developments that lead from an inmate’s first victimization to the eventual acceptance of their new label. This new social label is rooted in an ascribed social status that ultimately leads to the internalization of their new sex role as part of a newly adopted self-identity. Lastly, implications for mental health practitioners within custodial institutions are discussed, demonstrating the need for therapist awareness of prison sub-cultural norms to effectively understand and treat victims of prison rape.

Middle School and Junior High Counselors’ Perceptions of Home-Schooled Students Who Return to the Public Education Setting

Darol Hail
Sam HoustonState University


The impact of home schooling on students who return to public school was investigated through perceptions of public school counselors. Prior research indicated that most home school students were not only successful academically but socially as well. However, the perceptions of the counselors did not support academic or social success for the home-schooled students with whom they dealt. The data collected for this research suggested that the differences from previous studies may have resulted from the home-schooled students not fitting in the typical profile of home schoolers in terms of motivation for home schooling.


Davor Jedlicka, Ph.D. And Glen Jennings, Ed.D.


This study shows a procedure for supervision of marital therapy on the Internet. The study began with a supervisory agreement specifying the relationship between the supervisor and supervisee. The hierarchy between the supervisor and the supervisee on the Internet depended primarily on the supervisor's experience rather than on the socially ascribed status. Online therapy and supervision occurred at a much faster pace than in conventional modalities without losing the quality of supervision. Based on these findings, online supervision may be considered for inclusion into the academic curricula for training of marriage and family therapists and of counselors who may desire to practice on the Internet.

Demographic and Educational Influences on the Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Divorced and Intact Families in Rural Areas

Lindsey R. Guthman
Dr. Rebecca A. Robles-Pina
Houston State University


Researchers of self-esteem have debated the effects of parental marital status on the self-esteem of adolescents, and the results have supported differing points of view. To further investigate this topic, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of educational and demographic factors on the self-esteem of adolescents from divorced and intact families. Some of the factors investigated were parental marital status, gender, ethnicity, age, and participation in extracurricular activities. Findings suggested that there were no significant differences between gender and ethnic groups on the self-esteem scores of adolescents from divorced and intact families. Of noteworthy significance was that the adolescents from intact families participated in extracurricular activities 75% more often than adolescents from divorced families; moreover, their self-esteem scores were higher. Implications on research and counseling were noted.