Spring 2002


This is an exciting milestone for us as we are celebrating the first anniversary of Professional Issues in Counseling and the publication of the fourth issue. Starting a new professional adventure is both challenging and a little frightening, because we were concerned about securing manuscripts on a national level. We have been so pleased by the manuscripts submitted and would like to thank the authors for choosing this journal.

We are especially grateful to the editorial reviewers who dedicate hours in the reading and revision of the manuscripts. The editorial board was carefully selected for their professional expertise, and this expertise has been evident in the quality of reviews that we have received.

We wanted to focus on graduate research in this issue but were unable to do so with limited submissions. We continue to encourage graduate students to send in their manuscripts for consideration in future issues.

Due to technical problems with the software application we were unable to follow APA 5th edition format as precisely as we would like to. However, all authors did submit their articles in accordance with APA formatting


Adventure-Based Counseling with Adolescents:Lessening Racial Effect on Group Cohesion

J. Scott Glass
Mississippi State University - Meridian Campus


This article reports the results of a study which examined the effects of participation in a low-element challenge course on level of group cohesion as perceived by adolescents of various races, between the ages of 11 and 14. The effect of race as an independent variable was considered to determine how members of various racial groups might react differently to the program. Results suggest that group cohesion developed through the one-day, low-element challenge course experience, and that there were no significant differences in perception of group cohesion by race.

Site-Based Counseling in Elementary Schools

Ronald S. Kiyuna, EdD
Christopher Lucey, PhD
Susan M.Tracz, PhD
California State University, Fresno
Department of Counseling and Special Education


Academically at-risk students face chronic multiple-stressors leading to significant emotional distress, which hinders educational and personal achievement. An effective remedy for this concern includes successfully integrating counseling with the school’s educational mission. This study describes a counseling service established by an elementary school and a counselor education program at a regional university. The setting for the presented model is an urban, lower socioeconomic and ethnically diverse elementary school. The data analyzed for this report represent a five-year time period. The most frequently cited reasons for referral included low academic performance, low motivation and disruptive behavior. An analysis of the teacher assessment, counselor trainee assessment and student satisfaction scores revealed significant correlation values (p < .01), suggesting hopeful outcomes for such programs.

What Motivates Individuals to Become Leaders in Public and Higher Education?

Barbara Martin, Ed.D.
J.A. Johnson, Ed.D.
Marsha Lay, Ed. D.


DeSpain (2000, p. xi) suggested that “the progress of man has always been dependent upon the power of leadership.” He (DeSpain, 2000, p. xi) continued with the statement that “We have just begun to understand the power and potential of leadership – that is the proper alignment of the relationship between the leader and those being led.” While research has documented career paths and processes of administrative selection, little work has been done toward furthering an understanding of what causes people to set personal goals (Phillips & Gully, l997). Researching the area of leadership and motivation specifically in the educational arena, statistics indicate that beginning in the twenty-first century, a severe shortage will exist of individuals needed to fill university faculty positions and school district leadership positions (Tack & Patitu, 1992). If educational programs are not able to identify the motivating factors that encourage applicants, this shortage will translate into acrisis situation for educational leadership.

The purpose of this study, therefore, was to review the literature and research the issue of leadership and motivation using superintendents (district level), principals (building level), and professors (higher education) as units of analysis. The researcher identified and examined factors perceived to have influenced applicants to apply for leadership positions breaking the results into gender-specific areas. Results of the investigation provided promising areas for further research and opportunity for increased understanding in the area of what motivates individuals to become leaders in the field of public and higher education.