2011 Articles

An Analysis of Supervision Modalities Utilized in CACREP On-Campus Clinical Training Programs: Results of a National Survey

Pit Kolodinsky
Northern Arizona University in Yuma
Charles V. Lindsey
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
Mark Young
Gonzaga University
Nick Lund
Professor Emeritus
Northern Arizona University
Bennett Edgerly
Doctoral student in Counseling Psychology, Northern Arizona University
Michael Zlatev
Doctoral student in Counseling Psychology, SUNY Albany


Given that the new 2009 CACREP standards are now being rapidly implemented among CACREP-accredited Counselor Education programs, a systematic review of CACREP programs’ supervision practices was considered by the authors to be timely.  As such, a national survey was conducted in order to examine the breadth of supervision modalities methods.  Findings indicated that live supervision appears to be trending upward, and that many professors seek to either expand the quality of live supervision technology they already have, or, among those that do not have that option, they wish to implement it if they can overcome logistical and/or financial obstacles.

Defining Counseling Professional Identity from a Gendered Perspective: Role Conflict and Development

Amanda C. Healey and Danica G. Hays
Sam Houston State University
Old Dominion University/p>


Professional identity results from a developmental process that facilitates a growing understanding of self in one’s chosen field, enabling one to articulate her or his role to others within and outside of the discipline (Brott & Myers, 1999; Smith & Robinson, 1995). In order to merge the personal and professional, every arena of one’s life will be reflected upon as the new professional emerges.  This conceptual manuscript highlights how professional identity relates to personal beliefs, life experiences and gender role expectations.  Implications for counselor educators and practitioners will be discussed.

Keywords: counseling, professional identity, gender, success

The relationship between psycho-social stage resolutions and self-reported dynamics in the clinical supervision of counseling practicum students

Joshua M. Gold
University of South Carolina


As a component of the “personalization” issues of counselors-in-training, the issue of previous life experience is seen to affect clinical training and supervision. This study investigated how counseling students’ differing resolutions of the stages of Erikson’s developmental psycho-social model were related to their perceptions of the dynamics of supervision received during practicum. Eighty-seven practicum counseling students completed the Measures of Psychosocial Development and the Working Alliance Inventory. The analysis revealed statistically significant (p<.01) results in terms of understanding the quality of the supervisory relationship based on students’ stage resolutions. These findings offer implications for clinical training and supervision.

Keywordsclinical training clinical supervision, personalization issues, self-of-the-counselor

Social Interest and Differentiation of Self

Patrick Johnson
Portland State University

Adina J. Smith
Montana State University


In this study, we assessed the relationship between differentiation of self and social interest, providing a family systems conceptualization of the Adlerian concept. Participants were 813 college student volunteers who completed measures of differentiation and social interest. Results indicate that various dimensions of differentiation have unique effects on social interest. Implications of these results are discussed.

Keywordssocial interest, differentiation, Adler, Bowen, family systems theory

Working with Adolescents' Search for Meaning in Today's World: Existentialism Revisited

Marty Slyter, Ph.D.
Eastern Washington University


It is difficult to find writing on using existentialist approaches in clinical work with adolescents. It is commonly believed that a number of struggles that adolescents experience closely resemble the existential issues of an increase in freedom, choice, responsibility, awareness of isolation and a search for meaning. Counseling practitioners are reminded that existential counseling approaches are a strong match for the adolescent developmental stages. The focus of this paper is on one of the existential issues: search for meaning. The author first provides a working definition of existentialism followed by a discussion on adolescents and their search for meaning.  The final section goes over the role of the counselor and specific counseling approaches to use that are based upon Frankl’s (1984) three ways of giving meaning to life.

Identifying Beliefs about Leadership: Lifting Up Voices of School Counselors

Lynne Guillot Miller and John West
Kent State University

Stacey N. Seefeldt
Brevard High School

Jason McGlothlin and Donald Bubenzer
Kent State University


In this study an effort was made to identify the views of six school counselors relative to their leadership role in the school. The study used qualitative methodology and three themes pertaining to school counselor leadership were identified, i.e., school counselors believing in a shared sense of leadership, believing in the importance of being trustworthy, and believing in persistence or endurance. Further descriptions of these themes are presented in the article.

Keywords: school counselor, leadership, qualitative, school collaboration

Infidelity among College Students in Committed Relationships

Erin O. Kern
Case Western Reserve University


The present author investigated several motivational factors for infidelity within college dating relationships.  A sample of 187 college students (86 male, 101 female) that had been in a significant romantic relationship completed a survey compiled of multiple instruments, each assessing five different types of motivational factors (trust, rejection sensitivity, need to belong, self esteem, and loneliness).  Participants also completed the Motivations for Infidelity Inventory (MII), measuring general motivations for infidelity including factors such as relationship dissatisfaction, sex, anger, and neglect.  As predicted, motivations for infidelity within a relationship are significantly inversely proportionate to the amount of self esteem and levels of trust within the relationship, and positively correlated with levels of loneliness, rejection sensitivity, and need to belong.  The present findings indicate that all of these factors play a role in motivating infidelity in dating relationships, and with this information counselors may be able to work with couples and individuals in order to intervene or circumvent potential infidelity in dating relationships.

Keywords: infidelity, dating relationship, college, extradyadic relationship.