2009 Articles

Consultation as Perceived by Rural School Counselors Under the System Support Component of a Comprehensive Developmental Guidance Model

Pamela E. Monk, Ph.D.
Lamar University

Mary Nichter, Ph.D.
Sam Houston State University


The purpose of our study was to examine and describe rural school counselors’ usage of consultation under the system support component of the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA, 2004a) guidelines for a comprehensive guidance program as perceived by Texas rural school counselors and measured by Counselor-Consultant Survey-Modified (CCS-M). Texas rural school counselors participating in our research study report they spent more than 21% of their time in the area of consultation under the system support component. This is in excess of the TEA (2004a) model’s suggested time distribution (10-15%) for elementary middle school counselors, with 15-20% recommended for high school counselors. The perceptions of Texas rural school counselors’ perceptions regarding support from their supervisor in their consultative role under the system support are described.

The Meaning of Couple’s Lived Experiencesof Living With Chronic Pain

James S. Flowers, PhD, LPC-S
Sam Houston State University


Chronic pain is a multidimensional problem that causes anguish for people who suffer from the toll taken on emotions, bodies, mind, and spirits. Chronic pain constitutes a colossal challenge for mental health professionals, physicians, insurers, employers, and families because it stretches their capabilities, finances, optimism, and not infrequently, patience. The aim of this qualitative study was to deepen the understanding of the lived experiences of families affected by chronic pain in order for clinicians to better be acquainted with and treat patients and families with chronic pain. I used qualitative methods to reveal the experiences of these families. Data was gathered from a Texas border pain management clinic. The words of the participants were presented in order to convey the emotional impact chronic pain delivers.

Grade Retention: Good or Bad? A Review of the Literature

Kelley Stapleton and Rebecca A. Robles-Piña
Sam Houston State University


School counselors need to be informed about retention as they will be part of the decision making team that makes decisions regarding student retention and have to provide social and emotional support to students while complying with federal standards, such as NCLB. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on retention to determine the affects of (a) retention and dropping out of school, (b) grade retention and socioemotional problems, (c) and grade retention and academic achievement. The literature review indicated that retention: (a) is a major predictor for dropping out of school, (b) has a negative impact on socioemotional issues, and (c) actually lowers academic achievement.

Adventure Based Counseling and Invitational Theory

J. Scott Glass
East Carolina University

Ashley Kurz, MSSA, LSW
Providence House


Invitational theory offers a framework within which counselors (as well as others) may improve and enrich the physical and psychological environments of their institutions while encouraging the development of the people who live and work there.  Adventure based counseling provides a similar framework, focusing on many of the same core tenets of invitational theory. This paper addresses the combination of invitational theory and adventure based counseling, and provides examples of activities that may be implemented in the process.