2006 Articles

A Case Study of Therapeutic Interventions as Related by a Person Who Was a Victim of Traumatic Crime

Kate Walker, Kendra Watson, Chi-Sing Li
Sam Houston State University


When a traumatic event happens, society is accustomed to turning to mental health professionals for directions on coping and recovering. Past research on the efficacy of psychological debriefings, however, is divided (Gist & Devilly, 2002; Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2003; McNally, 2002; Rose & Bisson, 1998; van Emmerik, Kamphuis, Hulsbosch, & Emmelkamp, 2002; Watson, Friedman, Gibson, Ruzek, Norris, & Ritchie, 2003). In an effort to determine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in a single case study, the authors triangulated data from research documenting information as related by a person who was a victim of a traumatic crime and research documenting police reports and anecdotal data from the victim's advocate therapist. The compilation of the data from these two research endeavors has resulted in a snapshot of what one victim perceived to be helpful and unhelpful therapeutic interventions following a trauma.

Harmonious Families: Using Family Counseling and Adventure Based Learning Opportunities to Enhance Growth

J. Scott Glass, East Carolina University
Mary Allen Mann, Elon University


Family functioning may impact individual family members both positively and negatively with regards to one's identity, perceptions, and ways of understanding the surrounding environment. The helping professions have dedicated much time and research in an effort to design and implement programs which are effective at dealing with issues directly related to family systems. One such approach to this type of helping relationship is Family Counseling. Family counseling aims to reduce familial conflict and improve communication among family members. These objectives are in line with the expectations of another approach designed to work with systems or groups, adventure based counseling. Adventure based counseling seeks to reduce conflict among participants while at the same time improving communication. It is suggested that a low-element adventure based counseling program, in conjunction with family counseling, will encourage an increased sense of family cohesion through the facilitation of group activities and thus, promote more effective communication and enhance growth among family members.

Closing the Achievement Gap: Service-Learning as a Counselor Intervention [.pdf]

Judith A. Nelson
Sam Houston State University


The author describes how school-wide service-learning projects can be integrated into the total developmental guidance and counseling program for the purpose of meeting the needs of all students, providing assistance to minority and economically disadvantaged students, and collecting data that will support the continued growth and success of the guidance program. The article describes current research which suggests that service-learning has the potential to reduce the achievement gap between students from low-socio economic backgrounds and students from high income families and how professional school counselors can use this information to include service-learning in their guidance programs.

The Effect of a Field-Based Counselor Internship on the Perceived Self-Efficacy of Basic Helping and Procedural Skills Among Counseling Interns [.pdf]

Melanie M. Bullock and Steve W. Johnson
University of Texas , El Paso

* This article has been revised (3/2/2007) to include additional statistical data. PIIC Journal apologizes to the authors and readers for the omission from the original article.


A counselor's self-efficacy appears to be an important component in the transition from student to practicing professional. The goal of this study was to examine changes in the self-efficacy of counseling interns after one semester of a field-based learning experience. Results are based on 41 participants enrolled in a masters level counseling program. Students completed the Self-Assessment of Basic Helping Skills and Procedural Skills at the beginning and conclusion of their first semester of a field-based counseling internship. Students' self-efficacy increased after one semester of field experience.

The Therapeutic Value of the Mythopoetic Men's Movement: A Phenomenological Study [.pdf]

Scott Baker
Kent State University


This qualitative study employed semi-structured interviews to investigate the personal meaning of the mythopoetic men's movement. Participants included three organizers of a national mythopoetic men's gathering. All participants lived in the same town, attended the New Church , were married with children, and were white males between the ages of 44 and 54 with household incomes over $50,000 per year. Analysis revealed three themes, including the mission, the self, and the struggle. The men described their activities within the men's movement as part of a mission. They discussed personal changes that they had made after becoming involved in the movement. And they alluded to a struggle between membership in the movement and membership in the larger community of men. Potential lessons for counseling men are discussed.

Counselors' Perceptions of Their Leadership Roles in Schools [.pdf]

Carol Ritter and Sheryl Serres
Sam Houston State University


Traditionally school counselors have viewed themselves as providers of support services to students in schools. However, recent initiatives and requirements have called upon school counselors to function as leaders in schools. Counselors are being increasingly urged to affect the systemic academic environment in order to promote student achievement. This study addresses how school counselors in two large suburban area school districts view themselves as leaders within their schools. This research indicates that, contrary to previous literature, some school counselors do view themselves as leaders and report high levels of comfort and preparedness for their leadership roles.