2003 Articles

Clinical Supervision of Licensed Chemical Dependency Counselors: A Survey of Knowledge and Practice

Eric A. Schmidt
Southwest Texas State University

David C. Barrett
Private Practice, Dallas, TX


The training and educational requirements for licensure as a chemical dependency counselor have continued to increase over the past three decades. For example, some states have outlined specific standards that must be successfully met in order to achieve and maintain a professional license as a chemical dependency counselor (LCDC). Among these are standards specifically addressing clinical supervision. The state of Texas requires LCDC counselors-in-training to remain in supervision for thousands of hours in order to refine the skills needed to effectively treat clients experiencing substance use, abuse and dependency. Little is known, however, as to the type, quality and consistency with which clinical supervision is being provided both during and after training. This article discusses the results of a statewide survey of 231 chemical dependency counselors. The survey wasdesigned to ascertain the amount and type of clinical supervision received during training, as well as the occurrence of clinical supervision in post-training years.

Developmental Aspects of Adolescents and Religious Conversion

Amanda K. Grein
Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary


Religiosity is a vital aspect to adolescents and their identity development. Several key developmental theorists will be examined with regard to adolescent identity development and ensuing religious conversion. Since older adolescents are often targeted for cult conversion (Galanter, 1989), a better understanding of what is occurring mentally and spiritually in these teenagers can aid counselors working with this population. Positive religious conversion can help the youth develop a firmer sense of who they are whereas cult conversion can stall and hinder the adolescent leaving their identity underdeveloped or replaced with a group identity.

I Can See the Tops of Trees: Building Collaborative Relationships with Students, Teachers and Parents


The school counselor has an array of responsibilities within the school environment. One important responsibility is building collaborative relationships with students, teachers and parents. This article examines the school counselor’s role and challenges in building these working alliances. It also presents a counselor empathy model that can be utilized to strengthen empathic bonds in school relationships

A Study of Facilitator Decisions on Ethical Adventure Issues

Long, D., DeTrude, J. A. and Nichter, M.S

In this study an attempt was made to determine if adventure facilitators were making ethically correct decisions based upon their knowledge and skills obtained in training and workshops on adventure ethics and decision making. Adventure facilitators and apprentices (N=87) in one school district were surveyed on five areas of decision making: (1) empowerment; (2) informed consent; (3) appropriate use of risk; (4) dual relationships; and (5) physical needs of participants. Based upon the date, it can be concluded that facilitator responses accept the hypothesis that adventure facilitators, without the benefit of extensive adventure-based decision making, can make correct decisions based on personal knowledge and experience in the five areas of decision making. Recommendations include follow-ups with focus groups to determine appropriate training models, follow-up with facilitators on the use of the mute technique; and replicate this study with other school based adventure facilitators. (adventure facilitators); (decision making); (adventure ethics)

Beginning Counselors' Use of Praise

J. Scott Glass
Elon University

J. Scott Glass, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Human Services Department at Elon University.

All correspondence regarding this article should be sent to J. Scott Glass at jglass@elon.edu.


Praise can be a powerful tool in relationships between elementary school counselors and their students. While there are beneficial aspects of using praise, it is equally important that school counselors be aware of students' possible negative reactions. To effectively use praise with elementary students, counselors need an awareness of possible benefits and pitfalls associated with the construct. While school counselors are most likely aware of praise, it is important that they gain an understanding of how to implement it effectively when working with their young clients.

Philosophical Counseling: A Call to Counselors

Dr. Duane Halbur
University of Northern Iowa


The field of Philosophical Counseling is quickly becoming a unique service field in the United States. Counselors have the opportunity to become active in this field and be on the forefront of this contemporary approach in the helping field. This article offers a rationale for counselors to research and apply philosophical concepts in practice. Additionally, it addresses why incorporating philosophical lessons with counseling may help the clinician to enhance therapeutic practice. Further, this article offers applied examples as to how a therapist could use philosophical counseling.

Facilitating Accountability Data Collection for Use in Counseling Effectiveness Assessment

Julia Y. Porter, Ph.D., LPC, NCC, NCSC
Assistant Professor of Counselor Education
Mississippi State University, Meridian Campus


Performance accountability data is required for college counseling professionals to show program effectiveness. Collecting timely, useable data for program assessment presents special challenges because of ethical and privacy issues. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might facilitate data collection through classroom research. Thirty-two (32) faculty members participated in the study. Useable data was collected from 1,200 university students. A discriminant model was found which significantly increased the researchers' ability to identify faculty who would participate in a college counseling classroom research activity (83.56%).