2001 Articles

Preparando Conseferos Paras Ninos: Preparing the Counselors for the Children Model: An Ethical Perspective

Rebecca A. Robles-Pina, Ph.D.
Sam Houston State University


The purpose of this article is to present a model for counseling with culturally and linguistically diverse student populations. The development of the model “Preparando Consejeros Para Ninos” was made possible by a grant funded by the Office of Bilingual Education and Language Minority Affairs (OBEMLA). The primary purpose of the grant is to train 40 bilingual school counselors within a five-year period. The supporting goals of the grant and the related multicultural counseling literature are discussed from an ethical perspective. Some of the ethical guidelines discussed are respecting diversity, confidentiality, informed consent, and consultation. A discussion of ethics is important due to the violations that may occur when counseling is provided to culturally and linguistically diverse students by counselors who have not had the proper training. Finally, implications for school counseling training programs are advanced.

Supervision: A Guide for Beginning Counselors

Dale E. Pehrsson, Ph.D. & Michael A. Ingram, Ph.D.
Oregon State University


The supervisory relationship is a key factor for professional development and creates an opportunity for rich learning experiences for both supervisors and supervisees. Yet, emerging counselors may not be fully prepared to establish such relationships. This article is designed to guide the beginning professional through the process of selecting an appropriate supervisor and forming a professional supervision relationship.

The Supervision Process: Complications and Concerns

Judy DeTrude, Ph.D.
Sam Houston State University


The supervision relationship requires examination of multiple issues, and the supervisory process must incorporate sensitivity to the role and responsibilities of both the supervisor and the supervisee. This article discusses several of the major supervisory ethical issues in the literature and presents a research survey of supervisors and supervisees in diverse settings. Supervisors and supervisees were asked to discuss their major ethical concerns. An important finding of this study is the commonality of responses for both the supervisors and supervisees in counseling and educational settings. The results also indicated that these commonalities exist in occupational fields completely unrelated to counseling and education. Respondents expressed their ethical concerns within the supervisory relationship and commented on ethical issues in their work setting. The findings in this research study seem to be congruent with those found in the literature which highlight the complexity of the supervisory relationship and possible ethical issues encountered during supervision.

Ethical Diagnosis: Teaching Strategies for Gender and Cultural Sensitivity

Thomas J. Hernández and Susan R. Seem
State University of New York College at Brockport


Counselor educators have a responsibility to teach students how to ethically diagnose in ways that respect diversity. A contextual understanding of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and an awareness of the individual clinician’s values, and potential biases are essential to ethical diagnosis. This article presents teaching strategies to help counseling students learn how to consider gender and culture in the ethical diagnosis of mental disorders.

Evaluating the Services of a Rural Elementary Counseling Program

Elizabeth R. Taylor, Ph.D.
Texas Christian University


An evaluation was conducted of the elementary guidance and counseling services in a small rural school district. The evaluation focus was on the comparison of the current elementary guidance and counseling program with the developmental guidance model recommended by Gysbers and Henderson and the Texas Education Agency. The evaluation process, results, and recommendations for future program evaluations are presented.

Designing Effective Prereferral Interventions: Key Questions the School Counselor Should Know and Ask

Art W. Bangert
Assistant Professor School Psychology, College of Education, Idaho State University

Julie P. Baumberger


A key role for school counselors is to consult with teachers and other school specialists in efforts to design and implement effective student interventions (ASCA, 1999). In order to effectively facilitate prereferral intervention efforts and consult with teachers, it is recommended that school counselors be familiar with problem-solving methods that specifically address the individual needs of an increasingly diverse population of students (West & Idol, 1993). This article proposes that school counselors be knowledgeable of critical questions that are important to ask during each step of the problem-solving process in order to better identify and implement effective student-specific academic and behavioral interventions.

Exploring the Boundary Between Counseling and Pastoral Counseling:A Delphi Study

Shawn Patrick, M.A., John Beckenbach, M. A., and James N. Sells, Ph.D.
Department of Counseling, Adult and Health Education
Northern Illinois University,DeKalb, IL


Pastoral counseling and counseling share common training, interests, and goals, yet also include distinct differences. Members of both professions can benefit in having a clearer understanding of these similarities and differences as such knowledge can give greater strength to the workings of both fields. This study was interested in exploring, through use of a Delphi method, how leading educators of both fields perceive the commonalties and differences of pastoral counseling and counseling. By gaining an understanding of the perspectives from which members of each field are trained, clinicians from both areas can grasp a better awareness of the intent and purpose of each discipline.