The Development of Unified Command Structure for the U. S. Armed Forces, 1945-1950

[Excerpted from Ronald H. Cole, et al, The History of Unified Command 1946-1993 (Washington, DC: Joint History Office of the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995), pp. 11-21]

 

Origins in World War II

Unified command over US operational forces was adopted during World War II. It was a natural concomitant of the system of combined (US-British) command set up during that conflict by the Combined Chiefs of Staff. Unified command called for a single commander, responsible to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, assisted by a joint staff, and exercising command over all the units of his assigned force, regardless of Service. The system was generally applied during World War II in the conduct of individual operations and within geographic theater commands. Even before the war ended, the Joint Chiefs of Staff envisioned retention of the unified command system in peacetime. They agreed that when General Eisenhower's combined headquarters (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force) was dissolved, he would then become the commander of all US forces in Europe. A directive appointing General Eisenhower as Commanding General, US Forces, European Theater (CG USFET), was issued by the JCS on 28 June 1945, soon after V-E Day. In the Pacific, attempts to establish a unified command for the entire area proved impossible. Service interests precluded the subordination of either of the two major commanders in that area (General of the Army Douglas McArthur and Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz). During the final campaigns in the Pacific, therefore, these two officers held separate commands, as Commander in Chief, US Army Forces, Pacific (CINCAFPAC), and Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC), respectively.

The First Unified Command Plan, 1946

The impetus for the establishment of a postwar system of unified command over US military forces worldwide stemmed from the Navy's dissatisfaction with this divided command in the Pacific. On 1 February 1946, the CNO characterized the existing arrangement, with Army and Navy forces under separate command, as "ambiguous" and "unsatisfactory." He favored establishing a single command over the entire Pacific Theater (excluding Japan, Korea, and China), whose commander would have a joint staff and would exercise "unity of command" over all US forces in the theater.

This CNO proposal was discussed at some length. It was opposed by representatives of the Army and Army Air Forces, who favored unity of command on a basis of assignment of mission and forces, rather than of area of responsibility. The Navy's plan, they feared, would deprive General MacArthur of control of ground and air forces that he might need for his mission.[1 ]

After considerable discussion, a compromise emerged as part of a comprehensive worldwide system of unified command for US forces under JCS control. The resulting "Outline Command Plan," which was in effect the first Unified Command Plan, was approved by President Truman on 14 December 1946. It called for the eventual establishment, as an "interim measure for the immediate postwar period," of seven unified commands. These commands, their areas of responsibility, and their missions were as follows:

Far East Command. US forces in Japan, Korea, the Ryukyus, the Philippines, the Marianas, and the Bonins. Its commander, CINCFE, would carry out occupation duties, maintain the security of his command, plan and prepare for a general emergency in his area, support CINCPAC, and command US forces in China in an emergency.

Pacific Command. Forces allocated by the JCS within the Pacific area. CINCPAC would defend the US against attack through the Pacific, conduct operations in the Pacific, and maintain security of US island positions and sea and air communications, support US military commitments in China, plan and prepare for general emergency, and support CINCFE and CINCAL.

Alaskan Command. US forces in Alaska, including the Aleutians. CINCAL would protect Alaska, including sea and air communications, and protect the United States from attack through Alaska and the Arctic regions. He would plan and prepare for general emergency and support CINCFE, CINCPAC, and CG SAC.

Northeast Command. US forces assigned to Newfoundland, Labrador, and Greenland. CINCNE would maintain the security of his area and defend the United States against attack through the Arctic regions within his command; protect sea and air communications in his area; control Arctic airways as appropriate; support CINCEUR, Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, (CINCLANTFLT) and SAC; and plan and prepare for a general emergency.

Atlantic Fleet. Comprising forces assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, US Navy. CINCLANTFLT would defend the United States against attack through the Atlantic; plan and prepare for general emergency; and support US forces in Europe, the Mediterranean, the Northeast, and the Caribbean.

Caribbean Command. US forces in Panama and the Antilles. CINCARIB would defend the United States against attack through his area; defend sea and air communications (with CNO coordinating between CINCARIB and CINCLANTFLT); secure the Panama Canal and US bases in Panama and the Caribbean; plan and prepare for general emergency; and support CINCLANTFLT.

European Command. All forces allocated to the European Theater by the JCS or other authority. CINCEUR would occupy Germany, support the national policy in Europe "within the scope of his command responsibility," and plan and prepare for general emergency. The general principles established by the UCP were as follows:

Unified command in each command will be established in accordance, in so far as practicable, with Chapter 2, paragraph 12, of Joint Action of the Army and the Navy, [with] component forces consisting of Army, Army Air, and Naval forces. Forces assigned to a command will normally consist of two or more components and each will be commanded directly by an officer of that component. Each commander will have a joint staff with appropriate members from the various components of the Services under his command in key positions of responsibility. Commanders of component forces will communicate directly with appropriate headquarters on matters such as administration, training, and supply, expenditure of appropriate funds, and authorization of construction, which are not a responsibility of a unified command. The assignment of forces and the significant changes therein will be as determined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The JCS would exercise strategic direction over all elements of the armed forces. They would assign forces to the unified commands and prescribe the missions and tasks of those commands. The Services would retain operational control of all forces not specifically assigned by the JCS. Each unified command would operate under a designated Service Chief acting as executive agent for the JCS: the Chief of Staff, US Army; the Chief of Naval Operations; or the Commanding General, Army Air Forces (CG, AAF) (later Chief of Staff, US Air Force). By a separate provision of the UCP, the JCS recognized the existence of the Strategic Air Command (SAC), a command of the Army Air Forces (later USAF) which was not normally based overseas. It was made up of strategic air forces of the Army Air Forces not otherwise assigned. The commander of SAC was responsible to the JCS, but no specific mission was assigned to him by the JCS at that time. SAC became the first example of what was later designated a specific command though the term did not come into use until 1951. [2 ]

Establishment of CINCFE, CINCPAC, CINCAL, CINCEUR

Approval of the UCP did not in itself establish the commands named in the plan; a separate implementing directive was required for each command. The first three to be created were the Far East Command (FECOM), Pacific Command (PACOM), and Alaskan Command (ALCOM). A JCS directive of 16 December 1946 established these commands effective 1 January 1947. The executive agents for these commands were the CSA, CNO, and CG, AAF, respectively.[3] The next to be established was the European Command (EUCOM), established by directive of 24 February 1947, effective 15 March 1947, with the CSA as executive agent. In effect, CINCEUR was simply a new title for CG USFET. Since the latter had earlier been given direct command over US ground forces in Europe, no intermediate Army component headquarters was necessary.[4 ]

Establishment of CINCLANT

For the Atlantic, the original UCP would have set up a purely naval command under JCS direction (CINCLANTFLT). On 5 August 1947 the CNO recommended instead that CINCLANTFLT be established as a fully unified commander under the broader title of Commander in Chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT), and with its mission being "to conduct operations in the Atlantic," instead of the narrower phraseology used in the UCP: "to control the sea and secure the airways through the Atlantic." Also, the relations between the Atlantic and Caribbean Commands required clarification, in the CNO's view. Finally, the CNO recommended that the JCS assume direction of US Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAVEASTLANTMED, formerly US Naval Forces Europe, or USNAVEUR).[5]

The Army and Army Air Forces members on the JCS considered it "neither necessary nor desirable" to broaden the status and mission of CINCLANTFLT as CNO desired or to give CINCLANTFLT command over ground and air forces. The JCS postponed action on this matter while they dealt with less controversial aspects of unified command. Effective 1 November 1947, CINCARIB and CINCLANTFLT were activated, and CINCNAVEASTLANTMED (shortened in May 1948 to CINCNELM) was placed under JCS direction. The CSA became executive agent for CINCARIB and the CNO for the other two. CINCARIB assumed command of all US forces in the Caribbean Islands and the Panama area except for certain fleet units and facilities that were placed under operational control of CINCLANTFLT.[6]

A few days later, the CNO renewed his suggestion for the establishment of a unified Atlantic Command. This time his colleagues withdrew their objections, and on 1 December 1947 the Atlantic Command (LANTCOM) was created under the Commander in Chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT).[7]

Thus by the end of 1947, action had been taken on all of the seven commands envisioned in the original UCP except the Northeast Command (CINCNE). This presented political difficulties involving the Canadian Government, as described below. Meanwhile the National Security Act of 1947 had been passed by Congress and signed by the President; it gave the JCS a legal basis for existence and affirmed their responsibility for establishing unified commands in "strategic areas," "subject to the authority and direction of the President and the Secretary of Defense."[8 ]

Developments in 1948

As a result of continuing controversies over the roles and missions of the Services, the Secretary of Defense met with the Joint Chiefs of Staff at Key West, Florida, in March 1948 and worked out a detailed statement of the functions of each Service and of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This Key West Agreement, approved by the President and the Secretary of Defense and formally issued on 21 April 1948, recognized the JCS responsibility for unified commands and allowed them to authorize unified commanders "to establish such subordinate unified commands as may be necessary." It also sanctioned the practice, already well-established, of designating a JCS member as executive agent for each command.[9]

Several months later, mounting tensions in Europe led the Joint Chiefs of Staff to enlarge CINCEUR's mission somewhat. On 30 June 1948, they directed CINCEUR to supervise and coordinate all plans and actions of US forces under his command (and such other forces as might be made available in a general emergency) and to maintain reserve forces that could be employed elsewhere in an emergency.[10]

Neither CINCEUR nor other unified commanders had been assigned logistic or administrative responsibilities under the original UCP. The Joint Chiefs of Staff recognized a need to grant them such responsibilities and did so in an amendment to the UCP on 7 September 1948. Commanders of unified commands were made responsible for "coordination of logistic and administrative support of the component forces of their unified command," subject to legislative limitations, departmental regulations, and budgetary considerations.[11]

On 29 September 1948, the JCS assigned to CINCNELM responsibility for joint planning at the theater level for implementation within his area of joint plans directed by them. "This planning," they stated, "will be accomplished for all three U.S. Military Services, and will include plans for the employment of such other forces as may be available for meeting a general emergency. CINCNELM's planning for employment of the Strategic Air Forces will be confined to logistic planning in support of such operations."[12]

The status of SAC as a command under JCS direction was clarified by two directives issued by the JCS in 1949. On 4 January they designated the CSAF their executive agent for SAC. On 13 April the missions of CG, SAC (or CINCSAC, as he was later called) were set forth. He was charged with command over all forces allocated to him by the JCS or other authority and was assigned definite missions, including the conduct of strategic air operations or such other air operations as the JCS directed and with the support of other commanders under the JCS. He was also charged with planning for his assigned missions.[13]

Establishment of Northeast Command

The question of activating the Northeast Command, to cover the approach route for enemy attack across Greenland, Labrador, and Newfoundland, was addressed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in November 1948. At that time, the CNO expressed opposition to the establishment of a unified command in that area. There were, in his view, too few US forces there to justify a unified command; moreover, its location in foreign territory would provide excellent propaganda for the communists and would generate misunderstanding and friction with Canada and the United Kingdom. The CNO favored instead an Air Force command in the area, under JCS operational control exercised through the CSAF (in effect, a specified command). The Chiefs of Staff of the Army and Air Force rejoined that the JCS would be "derelict if they did not provide a command structure for the efficient, integrated control of . . . forces" in the area in question. Thereupon, the CNO evidently withdrew his objection. In April 1949 the JCS approved the establishment of the Northeast Command and sought approval from the Secretary of Defense to issue a directive for the command. Recognizing the political sensitivity of the issue, they cautioned the Secretary against publicity and urged that the action be coordinated through the US/Canadian Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PJBD). This recommendation was adopted; the Secretary of Defense instructed the US section of the PJBD to inform their Canadian colleagues that the United States intended to establish the command.[14]

The Canadian Government asked that the new command be titled "US Forces, Northeast." As a compromise, the JCS suggested "US Northeast Command," which Canada accepted. By a JCS decision on 29 August 1950, approved by the Secretary of Defense on 8 September, the US Northeast Command was established effective 1 October 1950, with the CSAF as executive agent.[15 ]

Command Changes in the European Theater, 1949-1952

Important political developments occurring in Europe in 1949 were reflected in altered command arrangements. On 23 May 1949, the JCS removed US Forces in Austria from assignment to EUCOM, setting up these forces as an independent command responsible directly to the JCS. Several weeks later, when the President appointed a civilian High Commissioner for Germany, CINCEUR was relieved of his responsibilities as Military Governor of Germany. Changes in his mission effected by the JCS spelled out his relationship with the High Commissioner.[16]

The year 1949 also saw the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NATO). In the ensuing months, NATO moved to shore up the defenses of Western Europe against a possible attack from the east. These developments showed a need for a stronger US air command in Europe. The JCS approved establishment of the Commander in Chief, US Air Forces in Europe (CINCUSAFE), on 20 November 1950 at the same level as CINCEUR and CINCNELM. Since those two commands were in effect Army and Navy commands, the result was three separate Service commands for the European area. The CSAF was named the JCS executive agent for CINCUSAFE. Missions of CINCLANT, CINCEUR and CINCNELM were modified as necessitated by creation of the new command.[17]

In 1951 the position of Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR), was established, to be held by a US officer. SACEUR was given "operational command, to the extent necessary for the accomplishment of your mission," of all US forces in Europe, regardless of Service: that is US [Army] Forces, Europe; US Air Forces, Europe; and US Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

The precise relationship between SACEUR and US commands remained to be spelled out in detail. On 7 July 1952, the President approved recommendations by the JCS that effected fundamental changes in unified command in Europe. Those changes vested requisite command authority in one individual. With presidential concurrence, the JCS established a full-fledged unified command in Europe under the title US European Command (USEUCOM) under a Commander in Chief, US European Command (USCINCEUR), who was also SACEUR. USCINCEUR exercised unified command and authority (except to the extent that operational control was exercised by NATO commanders) over all US forces allocated him by the JCS or other competent authority. He was granted covert limited authority to operate in Berlin, Austria, Trieste and Yugoslavia when so directed by the JCS. USCINCEUR was instructed to establish a US headquarters with a deputy and joint US staff at the earliest practicable date. He was encouraged to delegate extensive authority to his deputy. The existing "JCS commands" in Europe--EUCOM, NELM and USAFE--were designated component commands under the new US European Command, although unilateral Service functions would still be handled through single Service channels. EUCOM was to be given a new title and would continue as a JCS specified command for missions with respect to Berlin. Both NELM and USAFE would continue as specified commands for currently assigned missions outside USCINCEUR's area of responsibility. The CSA was designated executive agent for USEUCOM, and for the old European Command, now redesignated US Army Forces Europe (USAREUR). The CNO was named executive agent for NELM and the CSAF for USAFE.[18]

USCINCEUR assumed command in Europe effective 1 August 1952. In a message approved by the Secretary of Defense, the JCS on 2 December 1952 spelled out for USCINCEUR his geographical area of responsibility: Norway, Denmark, Western Germany, Berlin, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Austria, Trieste, the Mediterranean Sea, the Mediterranean Islands (exclusive of the Balearics), Algerian Departments of France, and the United Kingdom, including the territorial waters of those countries. His only authority for the rest of continental Europe was in the field of covert military planning. His North African responsibilities were limited to joint planning in French Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya and to military aspects of negotiations for base rights. The Secretary of Defense delegated some of his responsibilities concerning the Mutual Security Program (MSP) in Europe to USCINCEUR on 15 July 1952. He directed that USCINCEUR administer the military aspects of the MSP, including the control and administration of military units engaged in military assistance. USCINCEUR would also coordinate US military matters that were of joint logistical or administrative nature, including military assistance activities, US military procurement, base rights negotiations, and base construction.[19 ]

Clarifying Responsibilities of Unified Commanders, 1950

Following a review of missions and deployments of US forces, the JCS approved several changes to the basic UCP on 16 February 1950. They removed South Korea from CINCFE's area of responsibility but added the Volcano Islands, while also divesting CINCFE of some responsibilities for China. CINCEUR was relieved of his requirement to maintain reserve forces, and CINCAL and CINCNE were charged with coordinating Arctic airways. Finally, the statement that the UCP was an "interim measure" was deleted.[20]

The status of forces under one unified commander operating within the general area assigned to another commander was the subject of a JCS directive of 27 April 1950. The JCS did not intend to limit unified commanders rigidly to fixed geographic boundaries but wished rather to leave them free to operate where necessary to carry out their assigned missions. Commanders were authorized to extend operations into areas normally under cognizance of another commander if necessary for the accomplishment of assigned tasks. In routine operational matters, commanders under the JCS were enjoined to coordinate closely with each other. Forces sent to reinforce a unified commander (or other commander operating under JCS direction) would be assigned to that commander's operational control.[21]

Adjustments in areas of responsibilities affecting CINCARIB, CINCLANT and, to a lesser extent, CINCPAC, were ordered by the JCS in the early 1950s. In changes to the UCP suggested by the CNO and approved by the JCS on 18 July 1950, CINCLANT was given the missions of protecting Caribbean sea communications, to include antisubmarine warfare (ASW) operations and the control, routing, and protection of shipping. Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier (COMCARIBSEAFRON), would perform these missions for CINCLANT. Additionally, CINCLANT was charged with furnishing CINCARIB with sealift in an emergency. CINCARIB's mission was modified accordingly. He was also directed to coordinate with British, Venezuelan, and Dutch authorities in protecting oil fields in Venezuela, Trinidad, and Curacao. These changes brought questions from both CINCLANT and CINCARIB, which called forth clarifications on 21 August 1950. The JCS made CINCLANT responsible for protection of the Pacific Ocean approaches to the Panama Canal and made it clear that COMCARIBSEAFRON was directly responsible to CINCLANT for protection of sea communications in the Caribbean and the Pacific approaches. (In early 1951, protection of the Pacific approaches to the Panama Canal was reassigned from CINCLANT to CINCPAC.) [22]

Command in the Far East during the Korean War

The outbreak of the Korean War and subsequent developments in the Far East put US unified command there to a test, which it passed readily. Although General MacArthur, as CINCFE, had been relieved of responsibility for South Korea, early US reactions to the North Korean attack on 25 June 1950 were taken through his command, which was conveniently located for the purpose. These initial reactions, including logistic support to the Republic of Korea (ROK); protection of evacuation; air operations; and, eventually, ground operations were taken with presidential approval outside the authority of unified command under the UCP. On 10 July at the request of the United Nations, President Truman directed General MacArthur to establish the United Nations Command (UNC) for purposes of operations against the North Korean invaders. From that point General MacArthur, as CINCFE, supported the operations of the UNC, which he commanded as CINCUNC. His primary responsibility as CINCFE remained the defense of Japan, however. Over the strong objections of CINCFE, the JCS transferred the Marianas-Bonin and Volcano Islands from his responsibility and placed them under CINCPAC. The President concurred in this action on 9 April 1951. Further transfers of responsibility from CINCFE were approved by the JCS in late 1951, when they made CINCPAC responsible for US security interests in the Philippines, the Pescadores, and Formosa.[23]

In seeking presidential approval of these actions, the JCS also noted a need for a change in the provisions in the UCP relating to the control of units designated for atomic operations. The existing UCP assigned these units to the control of SAC but provided that in case of "dire emergency" other commanders might request authority from the JCS to assume temporary operational control of such units. The JCS now recommended that when lack of communications prevented a commander from applying to the JCS for such authority in a "dire emergency," he might assume temporary operational control without further authorization. On 22 January 1952, the Secretary of Defense approved this and the other amendments to the UCP recommended by the JCS.[24]

In the Far East Command as organized under General MacArthur, there were component commanders for the Air Force and Navy: Commanding General, Far East Air Forces (CG FEAF) and Commander, Naval Forces, Far East (COMNAVFE). General MacArthur himself, however, retained direct command of Army components, wearing a second hat as Commanding General, Army Forces Far East (CG AFFE). His staff was essentially an Army staff, except for a Joint Strategic Plans and Operations Group (JSPOG), which had Air Force and Navy representation. In 1952, after General MacArthur had left FECOM, the headquarters of Army Forces Far East was fully staffed and placed on a par with the other two component commands, and the Far East Command was given a truly joint staff.[25]


1] (U) JCS 1259/7, 23 Mar 46, CCS 323.361 (2-26-45) sec 3.

[2] (U) JCS 1259/27, 11 Dec 46; (U) Note by Secys on JCS 1259/27, 23 Jan 47; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 4.

[3] (U) Msg, WARX 87793, JCS to CINCUSARPAC et al., 16 Dec 46, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 4.

[4] (U) Msg, WARX 92711, JCS to CG USFET, 24 Feb 47, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 5.

[5] (U) JCS 1259/38, 6 Aug 47, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 5.

[6] (U) JCS 1259/41, 29 Sep 47, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 6. (U) Msg, WARX 89419 to CINCLANTFLT, CG CARIB, and Commander US Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 30 Oct 47, same file, sec 7.

[7] (U) JCS 1259/49, 6 Nov 47; (U) Dec On JCS 1259/49, 26 Nov 47; (U) Msg, WARX 91186, JCS to CINCLANTFLT, 26 Nov 47; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 7.

[8 National Security Act of 1947, PL 253, 80th Cong, 26 Jul 47.

[9 "Functions of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff," Att to JCS 1478/23, 26 Apr 48, CCS 380 (8-19-45) sec 8.

[10] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/75, 30 Jun 48, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 10. (U) Msg, WAR 84987, JCS to CINCEUR, 30 Jun 48, same file, sec 11.

[11] (U) JCS 1259/78, 3 Jul 48; (U) Dec On JCS 1259/78, 7 Sep 48; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 11.

[12] (U) Msg, WARX 90049, JCS to CINCNELM, 29 Sep 48 (derived from JCS 1259/95), CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 13.

[13] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/110, 4 Jan 49, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 15. (U) Msg, WARX 877110, JCS to COMGEN SAC, 13 Apr 49, same file, sec 17.

[14] (U) JCS 1259/106, 30 Nov 48, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 14. (U) JCS 1259/112, 22 Dec 48; (U) JCS 1259/113, 22 Dec 48, same file, sec 15. (U) Memo, JCS to SecDef, 13 Apr 49 (derived from JCS 1259/136); (U) Memo, Actg Chm. US Section PJBD to SecDef, 2 May 49; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 17.

[15] (U) Memo, US Section, PJBD to JCS, 28 Oct 49, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 19. (U) Memo, US Section PJBD to JCS, 13 Jun 50, Encl to JCS 1259/187, 16 Jun 50, same file, sec 21. (U) Msg, JCS 90097 to CINCNE and CINCLANT, 29 Aug 50 (derived from JCS 1259/189), same file, sec 22. (U) N/H to JCS 1259/189, 8 Sep 50, same file.

[16] (U) Dec On JCS 1369/18, 23 May 49, CCS 383.21 Austria (1-21-44) sec 17. (U) JCS 1259/152, 7 Jun 49; (U) SM-1361-49 to CINCEUR, 18 Jul 49; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 18.

[17] (U) SM-75-51 to LTG Lauris Norstad, 11 Jan 51; (U) SM-76-51 to CINCs et al., 11 Jan 51; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 22.

[18] (U) JCS 1259/241, 30 Jun 52; (U) N/H of JCS 1259/241, 9 Jul 52; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 30. (U) Msg, JCS 912973 to USLO SHAPE, 7 Jul 52, same file, sec 31.

[19] (U) Msg, JCS 914580 to USLO SHAPE et al., 28 Jul 52 (derived from JCS 1259/244), CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 31. (U) Dec On JCS 1259/269, 2 Dec 52, same file, sec 36. (TS) Memo, SecDef to JCS, 15 Jul 52, Encl to JCS 1259/243, 16 Jul 52, same file, sec 31.

[20] (U) Dec On JCS 521/49, 16 Feb 50, CCS 381 (2-8-43) sec 17.

[21] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/185, 27 Apr 50, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 21.

[22] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/186, 18 Jul 50; (U) Msg, JCS 86348 to CINCARIB and CINCLANT, 18 Jul 50; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 21. (U) Msg, JCS 89412 to CINCARIB and CINCLANT, 22 Aug 50 (derived from JCS 1259/190), same file, sec 22.

[23] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/200, 9 Apr 51, CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 24. (U) Dec On JCS 1259/218, 22 Dec 51; N/H of JCS 1259/218, 7 Mar 52; same file, sec 27.

[24] (U) Dec On JCS 1259/218, 22 Dec 51; (U) N/H of JCS 1259/218, 24 Jan 52; CCS 381 (1-24-42) sec 27.

[25 James F. Schnabel, US Army in the Korean War, Policy and Direction: The First Year, pp. 46-48.