The Annals of Sargon

[Excerpted from "Great Inscription in the Palace of Khorsabad," Julius Oppert, tr., in Records of the Past, vol. 9 (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1877), pp. 3-20]

1. PALACE of SARGON, the great King, the powerful King, King of the legions, King of Assyria, Viceroy of the gods at Babylon, King of the Sumers and of the Accads, favourite of the great gods.

2. The gods ASSUR, NEBO, and MERODACH have conferred on me the royalty of the nations, and they have propagated the memory of my fortunate name to the ends of the earth. I have followed the reformed precepts of Sippara, Nippur, Babylon, and Borsippa; I have amended the imperfections, which the men of all laws had admitted.

3. I have reunited the dominions of Kalu, Ur, Orchoé, Erikhi, Larsa,[1] Kullab, Kisik, the dwelling-place of the god LAGUDA ; I have subdued their inhabitants. As to the laws of Sumer[2] and of the town of Harran, which had fallen into desuetude from the most ancient times, I have restored to fresh vigour their forgotten customs.

4. The great gods have made me happy by the constancy of their affection, they have granted me the exercise of my sovereignty over all Kings; they have re-established obedience upon them all. From the day of my accession there existed no princes who were my masters; I have not, in combats or battles, seen my victor. I have crushed the territories of the rebels like straws, and I have struck them with the plagues of the four elements. I have opened innumerable deep and very extensive forests; I have levelled their inequalities. I have traversed winding and thick valleys, which were impenetrable, like a needle, and I passed in digging tanks dug on my way.

5. By the grace and power of the great gods, my Masters, I have flung my arms; by my force I have defeated my enemies. I have ruled from Itanan,[3] which is in the middle of the sea of the setting sun, to the frontiers of Egypt and of the country of the Moschians, over vast Phoenicia, the whole of Syria, the whole of .... distant Media, near the country of Bikni, to the country of Ellip; from Ras which borders upon Elam, to the banks of the Tigris, to the tribes of Itu, Rubu, Haril, Kaldud, Hauran, Ubul, Ruhua, of the Litaï who dwell on the borders of the Surappi and the Uknê, Gambul, Khindar, and Pukud.[4] I have reigned over the suti hunters who are in the territory of Iatbur, in whatever it was as far as the towns of Samhun, Bab-Dur, Dur-Tilit, Khilikh, Pillat, Dunni-Samas, Bubi, Tell-Khumba, which are in the dependency of Elam, and Kar-duniyas[5] Upper and Lower, of the countries of Bit-Amukkan, Bit-Dakkur, Bit-Silan, Bit-Sa'alla, which together form Chaldea in its totality, over the country of Bit-Iakin, which is on the sea shore, as far as the frontier of Dilmun. I have received their tributes, I have established my Lieutenants over them as Governors, and I have reduced them under my suzerainty.

6. This is what I did from the beginning of my reign to my fifteenth year of reign : I defeated KHUMBANIGAS, King of Elam, in the plains of Kalu. .

7. I besieged and occupied the town of Samaria, and took 27,280 of its inhabitants captive. I took from them 50 chariots, but left them the rest of their belongings. I placed my Lieutenants over them; I renewed the obligation imposed upon them by one of the Kings who preceded me.[6]

8. HANUN, King of Gaza, arid SEBECH, Sultan[7] of Egypt, allied themselves at Rapih[8] to oppose me, and fight against me; they came before me, I put them to flight. SEBECH yielded before my cohorts, he fled, and no one has ever seen any trace of him since. I took with my own hand HANUN, King of Gaza.

9. I imposed a tribute on PHARAOH, King of Egypt, SAMSIE, Queen of Arabia, IT-AMAR, the Sabean, of gold, sweet smelling herbs of the land, horses, and camels.

10. KIAKKU of Sinukhta had despised the god Assur, and refused submission to him. I took him prisoner, and seized his 30 chariots and 7350 of his soldiers. I gave Sinukhta, the town of his royalty, to MATTI from the country of Tuna, I added some horses and asses to the former tribute and appointed MATTI as Governor

11. Amris of Tabal, had been placed upon the throne of KHULLI his father; I gave to him a daughter and I gave him Cilicia which had never submitted to his ancestors. But he did not keep the treaty and sent his ambassador to URZAHA, king of Armenia, and to MITA, King of the Moschians, who had seized my provinces. I transported Amris to Assyria, with his belongings, the members of his ancestors' families, and the magnates of the country, as well as 100 chariots; I established some Assyrians, devoted to my government, in their places. I appointed my Lieutenant Governor over them, and. commanded tributes to be levied upon them.

12. JAUBID of Hamath, a smith,[9] was not the legitimate master of the throne, he was an infidel and an impious man, and he had coveted the royalty of Hamath. He incited the towns of Arpad, Simyra, Damascus, and Samaria to rise against me, took his precautions with each of them, and prepared for battle. I counted all the troops of the god Assur; in the town of Karkar, which had declared itself for the rebel, I besieged him and his warriors, I occupied Karkar and reduced it to ashes. I took him, himself, and had him flayed, and I killed the chief of the rioters in each town, and reduced them to a heap of ruins. I recruited my forces with 200 chariots and 600 horsemen from among the inhabitants of the country of Hamath and added them to my empire.

13. Whilst IRANZU of Van lived, he was subservient and devoted to my rule, but fate removed him. His subjects placed his son AZA on the throne. URZAHA the Armenian intrigued with the people of Mount Mildis, Zikirta, Misiandi, with the nobles of Van, and enticed them to rebellion; they threw the body of their Master AZA on the top of the mountains. ULLUSUN of Van, his brother, whom they had placed on his father's throne, did homage to URZAHA, and gave him 22 fortresses with their garrisons. In the anger of my heart I counted all the armies of the god Assur, I watched like a lion in ambush and advanced to attack these countries. ULLUSUN of Van saw my expedition approaching, he set out with his troops and took up a strong position in the ravines of the high mountains. I occupied Izirti the town of his royalty, and the towns of Izibia and Arniit, his formidable fortresses, I reduced them to ashes. I killed all that belonged to URZAHA the Armenian, in these high mountains. I took with my own hand 250 royal members of his family. I occupied 55 royal towns of which 8 were ordinary towns and 11 impregnable fortresses. I reduced them to ashes. I incorporated the 22 strong towns, that ULLUSUN of Van had delivered to him with Assyria. I occupied 8 strong cities of the country of Tuaya and the districts of Tilusina of Andia; 4,200 men, with their belongings were carried away into slavery.

14. MITATTI, of Zikirta, had secured himself against my arms; he and the men of his country had fled into the forests; no trace of them was to be seen. I reduced Parda, the town of his royalty to ashes; I occupied twenty-three great towns in the environs, and I spoiled them. The cities of Suandakhul and Zurzukka, of the country of Van, took the part of MITATTI; I occupied and pillaged them. Then I took BAGADATTI of the Mount Mildis, and I had him flayed. I banished DAYAUKKU and his suite to Hamath, and I made them dwell there.

15. Then ULLUSUN heard in his high mountains of my glorious exploits; he departed in haste like a bird, and kissed my feet; I pardoned his innumerable misdeeds, and I blotted out his iniquities. I granted pardon to him; I replaced him upon the throne of his royalty. I gave him the two fortresses and the 22 great towns that I had taken away from URZAHA and MITATTI. I endeavoured to restore peace to his country. I made the image of my Majesty: I wrote on it the glory of the god Assur, my Master, I erected many facsimiles of it in Izirti, the town of his royalty.

16. I imposed a tribute of horses, oxen and lambs upon IANZU, King of the river country, in Hupuskia, the town of his power.

17. AssurLIH, of Karla, ITTI, of Leper, had sinned, against Assur and despised his power. I had AssurLIH flayed. I banished the men of Karla, whoever they were, and ITTI, with his suite, I placed them in Hamath.

18. I took the inhabitants of the towns of Sukkia, Balla, Ahitikna, Pappa,[10] and Lallukni away from their homes ; I made them dwell at Damascus in Syria

19. I occupied the 6 towns of the country of Niksamma, I took with my own hand Nirisar, Governor of the town of Surgadia; I added these towns to the satrapy of Parsuas.[11]

20. BEL-SAR-USUR[12] was King of the town of Kisisim; I had him transported to Assyria with all that he possessed, his treasure, the contents of his palace; I put my Lieutenant in as Governor of the town, to which I gave the name of Kar-Marduk. I had an image made of my Majesty and erected it in the middle of the town. I occupied 6 towns in the neighbourhood and I added them to his government.

21. I attacked and conquered KIBABA, Prefect of the town of Kharkhar, I took him and the inhabitants of his country captive, I rebuilt this city and made the inhabitants of the provinces, that my arm had conquered, live there. I placed my Lieutenant as Governor over them. I named the town Kar-Sarkin j I established the worship of the god ASSUR, my Master, there. I erected an image of my Royal self. I occupied 6 towns in the environs, and added them to his government.

22. I besieged and took the towns of Tel-Akhi-tub, Khindau, Bagai, and Anzaria; I transported the inhabitants of them to Assyria. I rebuilt them; I gave them the names of Kar-Nabu, Kar-Sin, Kar-Ben, and Kar-Istar.

23. To maintain my position in Media, I have erected fortifications in the neighbourhood of Kar-Sarkin. I occupied 34 towns in Media and annexed them to Assyria and I levied annual tributes of horses upon them.

24. I besieged and took the town of Eristana, and the surrounding towns in the country of Bait-Ili ; I carried away the spoil.

25. The countries of Agag and Ambanda, in Media, opposite the Arabs of the East, had refused their tributes, I destroyed them, laid them waste, and burnt them by fire.

26. DALTA of Ellip, was subject to me, and devoted to the worship of ASSUR; 5 of his towns revolted and no longer recognized his dominion. I came to his aid, I besieged and occupied these towns, I carried the men and their goods away into Assyria with numberless horses.

27. URZANA, of the town of Musasir, had attached himself to URZAHA the Armenian, and had refused me his allegiance. With the multitude of my army I covered the city of Musasir as if it were with ravens, and he to save his life, fled alone into the mountains.

28. I entered as a Ruler into Musasir. I seized as spoil URZANA'S wife, sons and daughters, his money, his treasures, all the stores of his palace whatever they were. with 20,100 men and all that they possessed, the gods HALDIA and BAGABARTA, his gods, and their holy vessels in great numbers.

29. URZAHA, King of Armenia, heard of the defeat of Musasir and the carrying away of the god HALDIA[13] his god, he cut off his life by his own hands with a dagger of his girdle I held a severe judgment over the whole of Armenia. I spread over the men, who inhabit this country, mourning and lamentation.

30. TARHUNAZI, of the town of Melid, sought for revenge. He sinned against the laws of the great gods, and refused his submission. In the anger of my heart, I crushed like briars Melid, which was the town of his kingdom, and the neighbouring towns. I made him, his wife, sons and daughters, the slaves of his palace whoever they were, with 5000 warriors, leave Tel-Garimmi; I treated them all as booty. I rebuilt Tel-Garimmi; I had it entirely occupied by some archers from the country of Khammanua, which my hand had conquered, and I added it to the boundaries of this country. I put it in the hands of my Lieutenant, and I restituted the surface of the dominion, as it had been in the time of GUNZINAN, the preceding king.

31. TARHULAR, of Gamgum, had a son MUTTALLU, who had murdered his father by the arms, and sat on the throne against my will, and to whom they had entrusted their country. In the anger of my heart, I hastily marched against the town of Markasi, with my chariots and horsemen, who followed on my steps. I treated MUTTALLU, his son and the families of the country of Bit-Pa'alla in its totality, as captives, and seized as booty the gold and silver and the numberless treasures of his palace. I reinstated the men of Gamgum and the neighbouring tribes, and placed my Lieutenant as Governor over them; I treated them like the Assyrians. .

32. AZURI, King of Ashdod, determined within himself to render no more tributes; he sent hostile messages against Assyria to the neighbouring Kings. I meditated vengeance for this, and I withdrew from him the government over his country. I put his brother AKHIMIT on his throne. But the people of Syria, eager for revolt, got tired of AKHIMIT's rule, and installed IAMAN, who like the former, was not the legitimate master of the throne. In the anger of my heart, I did not assemble the bulk of my army nor divide my baggage, but I marched against Ashdod with my warriors, who did not leave the trace of my feet.

33. IAMAN learnt from afar of the approach of my expedition; he fled beyond Egypt towards Libya (Meluhhi),[14] and no one ever saw any further trace of him. I besieged and took Ashdod and the town of Gimtu-Asdudim;[15] I carried away captive IAMAN'S gods, his wife, his sons, his daughters, his money and the contents of his palace, together with the inhabitants of his country. I built these towns anew and placed in them the men that my arm had conquered.

34. I placed my Lieutenant as Governor over them, and I treated them as Assyrians. They never again became guilty of impiety.

35 The King of Libya[16] lives in the middle of the desert, in an inaccessible place, at (a month's) journey. From the most remote times until the renewal of the lunar period[17] his fathers had sent no ambassadors to the Kings, my ancestors, to ask for peace and friendship and to acknowledge the power of MERODACH. But the immense terror inspired by my Majesty roused him, and fear changed his intentions. In fetters of iron he threw him (IAMAN), directed his steps towards Assyria and kissed my feet.

36 MUTTALLU, of Commagene, a fraudulent and hostile man, did not honour the memory of the gods, he plotted a conspiracy, and meditated defection. He trusted upon ARGISTI, King of Armenia, an helper who did not assist him, took upon himself the collection of the tributes and his part of the spoil, and refused me his submission. In the anger of my heart, I took the road to his country with the chariots of my power, and the horsemen who never left the traces of my feet. MUTTALLU saw the approach of my expedition, he withdrew his troops, and no one saw any further trace of him. I besieged and occupied his capital and 62 large towns all together. I carried away his wife, his sons, his daughters, his money, his treasure, all precious things from his palace, together with the inhabitants of his country as spoil, I left none of them. I inaugurated this town afresh; I placed in it men from the country of Bit-Iakin, that my arm had conquered. I instituted my Lieutenant as Governor, and subdued them under my rule. I previously took from them 150 chariots, 1500 horsemen, 20,000 archers, 1000 men armed with shields and lances, and I confided the country to my Satrap.

37. Whilst DALTA, King of Ellip lived, he was submissive and devoted to my rule, the infirmities of age however came and he walked on the path of death. NIBIE and ISPABARA, the sons of his wives, claimed both the vacant throne of his royalty, the country and the taxes, and they fought a battle. NIBIE applied to SUTRUK-NAKHUNTI King of Elam to support his claims, giving to him pledges for his alliance, and the other came as a helper. ISPABARA, on his side, implored me to maintain his cause, and to encourage him, at the same time bowing down, and humbling himself and asking my alliance. I sent seven of my Lieutenants with their armies to support his claims, they put NIBIE and the army of the four rivers,[18] which had helped him, to flight, at the town of Mareobisti. I reinstated ISPABARA on the throne ; I re-established peace in his country, and confided it to his care.

38. MERODACH-BALADAN, son of IAKIN, King of Chaldaea, the fallacious, the persistent in enmity, did not respect the memory of the gods, he trusted in the sea, and in the retreat of the marshes; he eluded the precepts of the great gods, and refused to send his tributes. He had supported as an ally KHUMBANIGAS, King of EIam. He had excited all the nomadic tribes of the desert against me. He prepared himself for battle, and advanced. During twelve years,[19] against the will of the gods of Babylon, the town of BEL, which judges the gods, he had excited the country of the Sumers and Accads, and had sent ambassadors to them. In honour of the god Assur, the father of the gods, and of the great and august Lord MERODACH, I roused my courage I prepared my ranks for battle. I decreed an expedition against the Chaldeans, an impious and riotous people. MERODACH-BALADAN heard of the approach of my expedition, dreading the terror of his own warriors, he fled before it, and flew in the nighttime like an owl, falling back from Babylon, to the town of Ikbibel. He assembled together the towns possessing oracles, and the gods living in these towns he brought to save them to Dur-Iakin, fortifying its walls. He summoned the tribes of Gambul, Pukud, Tamun, Ruhua, and Khindar, put them in this place, and prepared for battle. He calculated the extent of a plethrum in front of the great wall. He constructed ditch 200 spans wide, and deep one fathom and a half. The conduits of water, coming from the Euphrates, flowed out into this ditch; he had cut off the course of the river, and divided it into canals, he had surrounded the town; the place of his revolt, with a dam, he had filled it with water, and cut off the conduits. MERODACH-BALADAN, with his allies and his soldiers had the insignia of his royalty kept as in an island on the banks of the river; he arranged his plan of battle. I stretched my combatants all along the river dividing them into bands; they conquered the enemies. By the blood of the rebels the waters of these canals reddened like dyed wool. The nomadic tribes were terrified by this disaster which surprised him and fled; I completely separated his allies and the men of Marsan from him; I filled the ranks of the insurgents with mortal terror. He left in his tent the insignia of his royalty, the golden....... the golden throne, the golden parasol, the golden sceptre, the silver chariot, the golden ornaments, and other effects of considerable weight ; he fled alone, and disappeared like the ruined battlements of his fortress, and I entered into his retreat. I besieged and occupied the town of Dur-Iakin, I took as spoil and made captive, him, his wife, his sons, his daughters, the gold and silver and all that he possessed, the contents of his palace, whatever it was, with considerable booty from the town. I made each family and every man who had withdrawn himself from my arms, accountable for this sin. I reduced Dur-Iakin the town of his power to ashes. I undermined and destroyed its ancient forts. I dug up the foundation stone; I made it like a thunder-stricken ruin. I allowed the people of Sippara, Nipur, Babylon, and Borsippa, who live in the middle of the towns to exercise their profession, to enjoy their belongings in peace, and I have watched upon them. I took away the possession of the fields which from remote times had been in the hand of the Suti Nomad, and restored them to their rightful owners.. I placed the nomadic tribes of the desert again under my yoke, and I restored the forgotten land delimitations which had existed during the tranquillity of the land. I gave to each of the towns of Ur, Orchoé, Erikhi, Larsa, Kullab, and Kisik, the dwelling of the god LAGUDA, the god that resides in each, and I restored the gods who had been taken away, to their sanctuaries. I re-established the altered laws in full force.

39. I imposed tributes on the countries of Bet-Iakin, the high and low part, and on the towns of Samhun, Bab-Dur, Dur-Tilit, Bubi, Tell-Khumba, which are the resort of Elam. I transplanted into Elam the inhabitants of the Commagene, in Syria, that I had attacked with my own hand, obeying the commands of the great gods my Masters, and I placed them on the territory of Elam, in the town of Sakbat. NABU-PAKID-ILAN was authorised to collect the taxes from the Elamites in order to govern them; I claimed as a pledge the town of Birtu. I placed all this country in the hands of my Lieutenant at Babylon and my Lieutenant in the country of Gambul.

40. I returned alone to Babylon, to the sanctuaries of BEL, the judge of the gods, in the excitement of my heart and the splendour of my appearance; I took the hands of the great Lord, the august god MERODACH, and I traversed the way to the chamber of the spoil.

41. I transported into it 154 talents, 26 mines, 10 drams of gold russu; 1804 talents, 20 mines of silver; ivory, a great deal of copper, iron in an innumerable quantity, some of the stone ka, alabaster, the minerals pi, digli flattened pi, sirru for witness seals, blue and purple stuffs, cloth of berom and cotton, ebony; cedar, and cypress wood, freshly cut from the fine forests on Mount Amanus, in honour of BEL, ZARPANIT, NEBO, and TASMIT, and the gods who inhabit the sanctuaries of the Sumers and Accads; all that from my accession to the third year of my reign.'

42. UPIR, King of Dilmun who dwells at the distance of 30 parasanges[20] in the midst of the sea of the rising sun and who is established as a fish, heard of the favour that the gods Assur, NEBO, and MERODACH had accorded me; he sent therefore his expiatory gift.

43. And the seven Kings of the country of Iahnagi,[21] of the country of Iatnan (who have established and extended their dwellings, at a distance of seven days navigation in the midst of the sea of the setting sun, and whose name from the most ancient ages until the renewal of the lunar period, none of the Kings my fathers in Assyria and Chaldaea had heard, had been told of my lofty achievements in Chaldaea and Syria, and my glory, which had spread from afar to the midst of the sea. They subdued their pride and humbled themselves; they presented themselves before me at Babylon, bearing metals, gold, silver, vases, ebony wood, and the manufactures of their country; they kissed my feet. .

44. Whilst I endeavoured to exterminate Bet-Takin and reduce Aram, and render my rule more efficacious in the country of Iatbur, which is beyond Elam, my Lieutenant, the Governor of the country of Kue, attacked MITA, the Moschian, and 3000 of his towns; he demolished these towns, destroyed them, burnt them with fire, and led away many captives. And this MITA the Moschian, who had never submitted to the Kings my predecessors and had never changed his will, sent his envoy to me to the very borders of the sea of the rising sun, bearing professions of allegiance and tributes.

45. In these days, these nations and these countries that my hand has conquered, and that the gods Assur, NIEBO, and MERODACH have made bow to my feet, followed the ways of piety. With their help I built at--the feet of the musri, following the divine will and the wish of my heart, a town that I called Dur-Sarkin to replace Nineveh. Nisroch, SIN, SAMAS, NEBO, BIN, NINIP, and their great spouses, who procreate eternally in the lofty temple of the upper and the nether world (Aralli), blessed the splendid wonders, the superb streets in the town of Dur-Sarkin. I reformed the institutions, which were not agreeable to their ideas. The priests, the nisi ramki, the surmahhi supar disputed at their learned discussions about the pre-eminence of their divinities, and the efficacy of their sacrifices.

46 I built in the town some palaces covered with the skin of the sea-calf, and of sandal wood, ebony, the wood of mastic tree, cedar, cypress wild pistachio nut tree, a palace of incomparable splendour, as the seat of my royalty. I placed their dunu upon tablets of gold, silver, alabaster, tilpe stones, parut stones, copper, lead, iron, tin, and khibisti made of earth. I wrote thereupon the glory of the gods. Above, I built a platform of cedar beams. I bordered the doors of pine and mastic wood with bronze garnitures, and I calculated their distance. I made a spiral staircase similar to the one in the great temple of Syria, that is called in the Phoenician language, Bethilanni. Between the doors I placed 8 double lions whose weight is 1 ner 6 soss, 50 talents of first-rate copper, made in honour of MYLITTA.... . and their four kubur in materials from Mount Amanus ; I placed then on nirgali ; Over them I sculptured artistically a crown of beast of the fields, a bird in stone oft he mountains. Towards the four celestial regions I turned their front. The lintels and the uprights I made in large gypsum stone that I had taken away with my own hand, I placed them above. I walled them in and I drew upon me the admiration of the people of the countries.

47. From the beginning to the end, I walked worshipping the god ASSUR, and following the custom of wise men, I built palaces, and I amassed treasures.

48. In the month of blessing, on the happy day, I invoked, in the midst of them, assur the father of the gods, the greatest sovereign of the gods and the Istarât,[22] who inhabit Assyria. I presented vessels of glass, things in chased silver, ivory, valuable jewels and immense presents, in great quantities, and I rejoiced their heart. I exhibited sculptured idols, double and winged, some... .' winged, some.., winged, serpents, fishes, and birds, from unknown regions and abysses, the.... in high mountains, summits of the lands that I have conquered with my own hand, for the glory of my royalty. As a worshipper of the gods and the god ASSUR, I sacrificed in their presence, with the sacrifice of white lambs, holy holocausts of expiation, in order to withdraw the gifts that had not been agreeable to the gods.

49. He has granted me, in his august power, a happy existence, long life, and I obtained a constantly lucky reign. I have entrusted myself to his favour.

50. The great Lord BEL-EL, the Master of the lands, inhabits the lofty tracts ; the gods and Istarât inhabit Assyria; their legions remain there in pargiti and martahni.

51. With the Chiefs of provinces, the Satraps, wise men, Astronomers, Magnates, the Lieutenants and Governors of Assyria, I have ruled in my palace, and administered justice.

52. I have bid them take gold, silver, gold and silver vessels, precious stones, copper, iron, considerable products of mountains the mines of which are rich, cloth of berom and cotton, blue and purple cloth, amber, skins of sea calves, pearls, sandal-wood, ebony; horses from higher Egypt,[23] asses, mules, camels, oxen. With all these numerous tributes I have rejoiced the heart of the gods.

53 May ASSUR, the father of the gods, bless these palaces, by giving to his images a spontaneous splendour. May he watch over the issue even to the remote future. May the sculptured bull, the protector and god who imparts perfection, dwell in day and in nighttime in his presence, and never stir from this threshold!

54 With the help of ASSUR, may the King who has built these palaces, attain an old age, and may his offspring multiply greatly ! May these battlements last to the most remote future ! May he who dwells there come forth surrounded with the greatest splendour; may he rejoice in his corporal health, in the satisfaction of his heart accomplish his wishes, attain his end, and may he render his magnificence seven times more imposing !


1. Orchoé, the Erech of the Bible, is certainly the Warka of the present day; Sippara, Sofeira; Nippur, Nigar; Larsam, Senkereh. Ur (the Ur of the Bible) is Mugheir; Kullab and Erikhi are unknown.

2. The old empire Bal-bal-ki. The syllabaries explain this ideogram by "Assur," but it is very awkward that in these texts, the identification with Assur occurs nowhere. It is therefore transcribed Sumer, which was the true name of the people and the language named wrongly Accadian. The term of Sumerian is supported by Menant, Eneberg, Gelzer, Praetorius, Delitzsch, Olshausen, and other scholars.

3. Itanus, or Yatnan, in the Island of Crete, became afterwards the name of the Island of Cyprus for the Assyrians.

4. The Pekod of the Bible (Jer.i. 21; Ezek. xxiii. 23).

5. Lower Chaldea. Nearly all the names of the Elamite towns are Semitic (see Gen. x. 22), but the Susian ones are not.

6. Tiglatpileser whom Sargon would not acknowledge.

7. This is the word siltan, the Hebrew shilton, "power," the Arabic sultan.

8. Raphia, near the frontiers of Egypt.

9. His condition before his accession.

10. It seems not to be Paphos of Cyprus.

11. Parthia or Persia?

12. The same name as Belshazzar.

13. We find in the inscriptions of Van, the god Haldi as god of the Armenians, which proves more forcibly than ever that the syllabary of the Armenian inscriptions is the same as the Assyrian syllabary.

14. Meluhhi is not Méroe, but Libya, and especially the Marmarica. Th name seems to be the Milyes of Herodotus.

15. Asdudim seems to be an Hebraic plural.

16. Meluhhi.

17. This is one of the most important passages of the text; the period is the Chaldaean eclipse period of 1805 years, and ended in 712 B.C. Instead of this passage, the Stele of Larnaca, now in Berlin, has: "from the remotest times, the beginning of Assyria, until now." The commencement of the period, 2517 B.C., coincided very nearly with the capture of Babylon by the Medes. This date commences the real history; previous to this time reigned the 86 princes during twelve lunar periods of 1805, and twelve solar periods of 1460 years, viz., 39,180 years. The very event may have happened ll years afterward, 2506 B.C. The deluge happened, according to the Chaldaeans, in 41,697 B.C.

18. Elam.

19. From721 to 709 B.C.

20. 110 miles.

21. Ionians, that is, Greeks?

22. The Hebrew Astaroth, which signifies "goddesses." Compare Judges ch. 10, vs. 6.

23. Hippopotamae?