HISTORY 386:  WAR AND THE MILITARY IN AMERICA
LECTURE OUTLINES AND TABLES


Lecture 1:  ARMIES AND WARFARE IN EARLY MODERN TIMES:  GENERAL TRENDS.
Terms:                                     Outline:
hoplites              dragoons                           I.  Introduction.               
legionaries          cossacks                                      A) Course Description.  
yeoman              lancers                                        B) Why Study History.   
Mongols             pikemen                                     C) Why Study Military History.  
stratiotai             Switzerland                                D) Aspects of  Military History.        
cataphract          landsknecht                                 E) Historical Evidence im Military History.     
janissaries           stradioti                                     F) The Origins of the Military & Warfare.       
condotierri         Albania                           II. Traditional Military Forms.           
Feudalism          Contract                                     A) Weaponry.    
knight                Mercenaries                                        1) Shock Weapons.
Crossbow           general                                               2) Missile Weapons.
Halberd              constable                                   B) Corps.       
Pike                   fusiliers                                             1) Infantry.
fusiliers              lieutenant general                               2) Cavalry.
Long Bow           sergeant major general                       3) Other corps.
Composite Bow   companies                                 C) Recruitment.         
Men at Arms       columns                                            1) Tribal Levies.       
scutage               tercios                                               2) Slave Troops.
helmet                legions                                              3) Mercenaries.
cuirasse              squadrons                                          4) Militias and Citizen Soldiers.
artillery             battalions                                           5) Feudal levies.
bombard            regiments                                  D) Organization.        
cannon               brigades                                   E) Military Theory and Science. 
siege artillery     proprietary commands               F) Civil-Military Relations.    
field artillery     Vegetius Renatus             III. From Medieval to Modern Armies, 1450-1650          
arquebus            Nicollo Machiavelli                   A)  Changes in Technology in Modern Warfare.
musket               Maurice of Nassau                    B)  Changes in Corps of Modern Armies.  
pistol                 Gustavus Adolphus                    C)  Changes in Recruitment in Modern Armies.
matchlock          John of Nassau                          D)  Changes in Organization in Modern Armies. 
wheel-lock         Duke of Bouillon                      E)  Changes in Military Theory and Science. 
flintlock            Maurice of Hesse                       F) State, Society and the Military.             
musketeers        Vauban                           IV. Conclusions.                                        
arquebusiers      Martinet

Readings:  Web Readings Section I 




Lecture 2: ARMIES AND WARFARE IN EARLY MODERN TIMES: THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. Terms: Outline:
France Junkers Poland I. Standing and Mobilized Armies. Britain Noblesse de la Epee Ottoman Empire A) Size. Austria Cadets Linear Tactics B) Recruitment. Holy Roman Empire Military Academies Line Infantry C) Officer Corps. Russia Guards Regiments Hollow Square D) Equipment. Holland Ships-of-the-line Field Artillery E) Conditions of Service. Sweden League of Augsburg Jagers II. Navies and Overseas Conflicts. Spain Holy League Grenzers A) Wars in Colonies. Portugal Spanish Succession Highlanders B) Regularization. Scots Austrian Succession Albanesi C) Naval Powers. Irish Polish Succession Turenne III. The Nature of Warfare. Swiss Jenkins' Ear Peter I A) Strategy. Mecklenburg Silesia Marlboro B) Tactics. Hesse Rhine Eugene of Savoy C) Affects. Balkans Ukraine Frederick IV. Conclusions.
Readings:  Web Readings Sections I and II




Lecture 3: COLONIAL WARS AND THE ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Terms: Outline: East Indies Cape Colonies Cotton I. Overseas Empires. Angola Navigation Acts Madras A) The Iberian Period, 1500-1600. Mozambique Boers Privateering B) Holland as an Overseas Power, 1600-1700. Hormuz Siberia Piracy C) Anglo-French Overseas Empires. Canada Levant Brazil II. The Military of the American Colonies. Goa Hudson Bay Mississippi A) The Major Intercolonial Wars. Malacca West Indies New England B) The Colonial Military Experience. Canton Virginia Militia III. The Military Origins of the American Revolution. Indonesia Tea Indians A) The End of the French Threat. Malaysia Coffee King William's War B) The Experience of the French and Indian War. Incas Potatoes Queen Anne's War C) The Question of the Frontier. Aztecs Cocoa War of Jenkins' Ear D) The Fiscal problem of the War China Tobacco French & Indian War & the Military in America. Yemen Vanilla Nova Scotia IV. Conclusions. New Amsterdam Allspice Gibraltar Virginia Indigo Newfoundland Java Sugar Cane Asiento Baltic Rum Canada Readings: Web Readings Section II
Lecture 4: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Terms: Outline:
Lexington Militia I. The Military Origins of the American Revolution. Concord Tories A) The End of the French Threat. Bunker Hill Loyalists B) The Experience of the French and Indian War. Boston Partisan C) The Question of the Frontier. George Washington League of Armed Neutrality D) The Fiscal problem of the War Continental Army guerrilla and the Military in America. New York Montreal II. The American Strategy and Conduct of the War. Howe Halifax A) The Organization of Armed Resistance. Burgoyne Lake Champlain B) The American Revolution as a Civil War. Brandywine Hudson C) Washington & Strategy of the Continental Army. Philadelphia George Rogers Clark D) Partisan Warfare. Saratoga Ticondaroga E) The Phases of the War of Independence. Trenton Dorchester Heights III. Some basic problems for the British. Valley Forge Appalachians A) Divisions over the Conduct of the War. Gates Mercenaries B) Divisions over the Strategy of the War. Cowpens Hessians C) Logistical Problems. Cornwallis D) The British View of Why They Lost. Yorktown IV. New Form of Conflict--The American Revolution. A) Colonial War--Against Colonial Power. B) A National Liberation War. C) Why the Colonist Won. V. Conclusions. Readings: Web Readings Sections III
Lecture 5:  THE MILITARY DIMENSION OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
Terms:                                                                Outline:
Louis XVI                   National Commission     I.  The Coming of the French Revolution.
Montesquieu                    for Arms and Powder          A)  External Factors Leading to the Revolution.
Rousseau                     Bonaparte                               B)  Internal Factors Leading to the Revolution.
Guibert                       Corsica                                   C) The Outbreak of the French Revolution.
Gribauval                    Brienne                                  D)  The Royal French Army and the Revolution.
Regulation of 1781       Toulon                                   E)  The French Revolution--A Coup d'Etat?
Non-Commissioned      Vendemiaire                II.  The French Revolutionary Army, 1789-1795.
     Officers Schools      Campoformio                         A) The National Guard and the Royal Army. 
Quartering                  Malta                                      B) The Regular Forces.
militia                        Egypt                                      C) The Volunteer Forces.
French Guard              Ottoman Empire                      D) The Officer Corps and the Revolution.
Swiss Guard                Brumaire                                E) The Army and External/Internal Threats.
Bastille                       Guerrilleros                            F) Amalgamation.
Marquis de Lafayette    Coalitions                               G) The Nation at Arms.
National guard             Abukir                      III.  The Rise of Napoleon, 1794-1799.
pensioners                   Consulate                               A)  Early Life and Career.
Volunteer Army           Consul                                   B) From General to Consul.
Valmy                         Emperor                                C)  The Consulate, 1799-1804.
Dumouriez                  Gendarmerie                          D) The Empire, 1804-1814.
Royal Army                Prefectures                             E) The French Army Under Napoleon.
Dumouriez                  conscription               IV. Opposition to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.
Royal Army                elán                                       A) The Coalitions.
Chartographic service   Imperial Guard                      B)  The Rise of Napoleon and the Coalitions.
Toulonne                    division/army corps                 C) The Third Coalition 1804-1807.
Amalgamation             Horatio Nelson                        D) Britain Stands Alone, 1807-1812.
Levee en Masse           Trafalgar/blockade                   E)  Victory Over Napoleon, 1812-1815.
Nationalism                 Austerlitz/Tilsit                       F)  Factors in the Defeat of Napoleonic France.
Popular sovereignty     Continental System      V.  Conclusions
La Patrie                    Kutuzov
Carnot                       Wellington/Blücher
"Liberation"              Waterloo
Readings:  Web Readings Section IV




Lecture 6: The War of 1812 and the American Military During the Napoleonic Wars. Terms: Outline:
regular army Jay's Treaty Treaty of Cession I. Question of the U.S. Military after the Revolution. state militias Pinkney's Treaty Orleans A) The "Antimilitary" tradition. Articles of XYZ Affair Ildefonso B) The Regular Army and the Militia. Confederation Convention of 1800 Lewis and Clark C) Armed forces of Early Republic, 1783-1812. Constitution Napoleon Bonaparte Pike II. The Military Engagements of the U. S., 1783-1812. Bonapartism Alien and Sedition Louisiana A) Internal Disturbances. Northwest Laws Essex Decision B) The Frontier and Conflict with the Indians. Southwest Naturalization Act Orders in Council C) International Conflicts. Shays' Rebellion Alien Act Impressment III. Impact of the French Revolution & Napoleon. Whiskey Rebellion Sedition Act Berlin Decree A) The Perils of Neutrality. Federalists Barbary Pirates Milan Decree B) The Quasi-War with France (1798-1800). Democratic Ottoman Nonimportation C) The Napoleon and the Louisiana Purchase. Republicans Empire Act D) The Problem of Neutrality & U.S. Shipping. Anthony Wayne Tripoli Embargo IV. The Origins of the War of 1812. Greenville Derna Nonintercourse Act A) The British Blockade and American Trade. Creek Tunis War Hawks B) The American View of Impressment. Cherokee Libya Tecumseh C) The Question of Neutrality. Seminole Bainbridge Jackson D) The Frontier. Mosquito Fleet Somers Harrison V. The Course of the War of 1812. Citzen Genêt Decatur Scott A) The American Forces. Washington William Eaton Fort McHenry B) The British Forces. John Adams Alexander Hamilton New Orleans C) The Conduct of the War. Thomas Jefferson Louisiana Hartford Convention D) Peace of Ghent and the Battle of New Orleans. John Jay West Florida Plattsburgh IV. Conclusions. Thomas Pinkney Mississippi Ghent Readings: Web Readings Sections V-VI
Lecture 7: The Legacy of the French Revolution in Europe and the Americas. Terms: Outline:
Hobbes Philike Hetaireia Silvanus Thayer I. The Legacies of the American and French Revolutions. Locke Carbonari Alden Partridge A) Ideological Legacy. Montesquieu Romanticism Norwich B) Social Legacy. Voltaire Vienna Virginia Military C) Political Legacy. Rousseau Argentina Institute II. Instruments of Change. Jefferson Simon Bolivar The Citadel A) New State Formations. De Concordet Mexico Jomini B) New Political Institutions. La Patrie Colombia Seminoles C) Military Service. Cisalpine Equador Creek D) Press and Secret Societies. Code Napoleon Central America Plains Indians E) Intellectual Currents. Batavian Chile Sioux III. Revolutionary Ferment, 1815-1848. Rhine Lajos Kossuth Cheyenne A) Western Europe. Duchy of Warsaw 1848 Revolutions Comanche B) Eastern Europe. Serbia Louis Napoleon Santa Ana C) The Middle East. Muhammad Ali Texas Sam Houston D) The Americas. War of 1812 West Florida Alamo IV. The United States Military, 1815-1846. Greek Revolution Andrew Jackson Goliad A) The Affects of the War of 1812. Polish Uprising Alexis de Tocqueville San Jacinto B) The Political and Social Views of the Military. 1830 Revolutions John C. Calhoun David Crockett C) The U. S. Army in the Years 1815-1846 Decembrists Dennis H. Mahan Jim Bowie V. American Expansion and the U. S. Military. A) The Army and the Frontier. B) Expansion by Settlement and Revolution. C) The Texas Revolution. VI. Toward A War with Mexico.
Readings:  Web Readings Sections VII-VIII




Lecture 8: New Factors in War: Mexico and Crimea. Terms: Outline:
Friedrich Krupp James K. Polk Sevastopol I. The Industrial Revolution & the Military--Beginnings. Robert Parrot Whigs Balaklava A) The Origins of the Industrial Revolution. John Dahlgren Democrats Piedmont B) Changes in Transportation and Communication. Eli Whitney Manifest Destiny Cholera C) Changes in weaponry. Congreve Zachary Taylor Typhus II. Concepts of Warfare . Minié Winfield Scott Floating batteries A) Infantry Tactics. percussion cap John C. Fremont Ironclads B) Cavalry Tactics. cartridge Alexander Doniphan Telegraph C) Artillery and Engineering. revolver Stephen Kearny railroads D) Organization and Logistics. rifled musket Palo Alto W. H. Russell E) Military Theory and Strategy. smoothbore musket Monterrey Varna III. The Mexican War and Its Aftermath. muzzleloader Buena Vista Transylvania A) The Origins of the Mexican War. breechloader Vera Cruz Galicia B) The Course of the War. Dragoons Cerro Gordo Crimea C) The Army and the Frontier. Engineers Chuburusco Baltic D) Toward Civil War in the U.S. Divisions Chapultepec Nicholas I IV. The Crimean War. Antoin Jomini Guadalupe Hidalgo Florence Nightengale A) The Origins of the Crimean War. Karl Von Clausewitz Moldavia Kars B) The Course of the Crimean War. Dennis Hart Mahan Wallachia Algeria C) Consequences of the Crimean War. Texas Sinope Zouaves IV. Conclusions. California artillery shells Napoleon III Readings: Web Readings Sections VIII-IX
Lecture 9:   New Factors in  War:  The American Civil War.
Terms:
Abraham Lincoln        J.E.B. Stuart               Fort Donelson                       submarines
Winfield Scott            Manassas (Bull Run)     Fort Henry                           observation baloons
Jefferson Davis           Peninsula Campaign     Atlanta                                 mortars
Robert E. Lee             Antietam                    Shenandoah                            ironclads
George McClelland     Gettysburg                  Army of the Potomac             Merrimac (Virginia)
Joseph Johnson            New Orleans              Army of Northern Virginia     Monitor
Thomas Jackson           Port Royal                 Rifled muskets (rifles)            Turrets
Ulysses S. Grant           Hatteras                     breechloaders                        Railroads
Philip Sheridan            Chickamauga              mines                                   revolvers
William T. Sherman     Vicksburg                  torpedoes                              telegraph
        
Outline:          
I. Introduction.                                                           III.  Changes in Tactics.
        A) Why Study the Civil War.                                        A) Technology and Battle.
        B) Causes of the War.                                                   B) Manpower and Logistics.
        C) Military Geograghy.                                       IV. Changes in Strategy.
        D) Balance of Resources                                                A) Anaconda Strategy and Defense.
II.  The American Civil War--The First "Total" War.               B) Napoleonic Strategy.
        A) The War Aims of the Opponents.                               C) Anihilation Strategy.
        B) The Resources of the Opponents.                      V.  Conclusions.       
        C) Initial Strategies.          
        D) Initial Tactics.

Readings:  Web Readings Sections X-XII





TABLES: CIVIL WAR STATISTICS Resources Federal Confederate Land Area 47% 33% Population 61% 39% Farms 67% 33% Manufacturing 81% 19% Wealth/product 75% 25% Bank Deposits 74% 26% Miles of RR 66% 34% Liquid Assets 80% 20%
Manpower of the Armies Federal Confederate Total Serving 2,000,000 750,000-900,000 Conscription 249,000 82,000 Commutation paid 87,000 Substitutions 116,000 Held to Personal Service 46,000 Blacks Enlisted 179,000 Maximum strength 1,000,000 460,000
Casualties
Federal Confederate Total KIA&MIA 110,100 94,000 204,100 Disease 224,586 164,000 388,586 Died while POW 30,192 26,000 56,192 Other 24,881 5,000 29,881 Totals 389,759 289,000 678,759
Major Engagements of the Civil War, 1861-1863 East West 1st Manasses (Bull Run, 6/61) Wilson's Creek (8/61) Valley Campaign (3-5/62) Forts Henry and Donelson (2/62) Peninsula Campaign (3-6/62) Pea Ridge (3/62) 2nd Manasses (Bull Run, 8/62) Shiloh (4/62) Antietam (9/62) Perryville (8/62) Fredericksburg (12/62) Murphrysborough (Stone's River, 12/62-1/63) Chancellorsville (5/63) Vicksburg (5-7/63) Gettysburg (6/63) Port Hudson (5-7/63)
Lecture 11: The Growth Of European Militarism. Terms: Outline:
Rifles (Rifling) Krupp command officers I. The Industrial Revolution and Armed Might. Muzzle-loaders Smokeless Powder education A) The Meshing of Industry and the Military. Breechloaders High explosives propaganda B) Firearms. Percussion caps Nobel media C) Artillery. Dreyse lyddite nationalism II. Universal Suffrage & Universal Conscription. needle-fire cordite romantic nationalism A) The Draft and Standing Army. Chassepot melinite darwinian nationalism B) Changes in Army Organization. Gra Telegraph racism C) Changes in Army Roles. Mannlicher conscription Pan- movements III. Nationalism, Ideology and Aggression. Mauser active imperialism A) Changes in National Ideology. Mitrailleuse reserves diplomacy B) Nationalism and Imperialism. Maxim landswehr alliance systems C) War and Diplomacy. Hotchkiss mobilization Russo-Turkish War IV. Conclusions. Browning railroads Boer War steel General Staff Russo-Japanese War Bessemer staff officers Balkan Peninsula
Readings:  Web Readings Sections XII-XIII




Lecture 12: WORLD MILITARY CHANGES AND THE AMERICAN MILITARY, 1865-98 Terms: Outline:
Rifles (Rifling) conscription Constabulary I. Introduction. Muzzle-loaders active Reconstruction A) The Changing Nature of War on Land. Breechloaders reserves Homestead Act B) Changing Nature of War on Sea. Percussion caps Strategic level corps Plains Indians C) The Changing Nature of Peace. Magazine fed mobilization Sioux II. The Prussian Military System. combat-support Staff rides Cheyenne A) Conscription and Reserve System. staff General Staff Comanche B) General Staff System. resource staff officers Apache C) Training System. railroads command officers Philip Kearny III. The Litmus test of War. horses education Philip H. Sheridan A) Austro-Prussian War of 1866. annihilation war games George A. Custer B) Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. attrition Napoleon III George Crook C) Results. steam power Otto von Bismarck Labor disputes IV. The Military In America, 1865-1898. screw propeller Helmuth von Moltke Coastal Artillery A) Mission in Post-Civil War Era. iron plate Schleswig-Holstein Land Grant Universities B) Reconstruction. rifled cannon Koniggratz (Sadowa) Infantry School C) Indian Wars revolving turrets Sedan Cavalry School D) Labor Disputes. steel plate Metz War College E) Coastal Defense Prussian Dreyse Emery Upton V. New Professionalism. Jena-Auerstadt Chassepot Alfred Thayer Mahan A) The Upton Mission. landswehr Mitrailleuse Arthur Wagner B) Alfred Thayer Mahan. Jomini Krupp Eben Swift C) Military Education and Training. Universal Bessemer VI. Conclusions. Readings: Web Readings Section XIII
Lecture #13: The U. S. MILITARY IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM Terms: Outline: Imperialism Fashoda incident William Schafter I. The New Imperialism. colonialism Afghan Border V Corps A) Intensification of Expansion. concessions Indochina Rough Riders B) Types of Expansion. Influence Spheres Russo-Japanese War Dacquiri C) Domination of Africa. Extraterritoriality Tripolitanian War San Juan D) Expansion in Asia and the Pacific. Protectorates Boxer Rebellion El Caney E) The U. S. in the Americas. colonies Macedonia Arsenio Linares II. Imperialism and Warfare. dominions Formosa Puerto Rico A) Technology, the Military & Expansion. settler states Taiwan Guam B) Expansion in the Late 19th Century. irridenta Japan Paris C) Naval and Military Power Abroad. East India Co. American Indians Moros D) The Non-European Response. colonies Spanish-American War Nicaragua III. Conflicts Over Empire. dominions Philippines Panama A) Africa. settler states Cuba Honduras B) Asia. irridenta U.S.S. Maine Mexico C) The Near East. East India Co. George Dewey Peking D) The Americas. Cape Colony Manila Bay Port Arthur IV. The U. S. and Imperial Expansion. South Africa Patricio Montojo Portsmouth A) The Spanish-American War. Transvaal Cavite Moroccan Crises B) The Philippine Insurrection. Orange Free State Wesley Merritt Bosnia- C) The Boxer Rebellion. Zulu Emilio Aguinaldo Herzegovina D) Intervention in Latin America. Boers Pasqual Cervera Balkan Wars V. Other Imperial Wars. Egypt William Sampson Triple Alliance A) The Russo-Japanese War. Sudan Santiago de Cuba Triple Entente B) Imperialism & the Origins of World War I.
Readings:  Web Readings Section XV




TABLE: INTERNATIONAL AND COLONIAL WARS, 1871-1914
1871-1876 RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN IN BUKHARA AND KHIVA. 1893 FRENCH-THAI WAR (ASIA). *1872-1873 MODOC WAR (AMERICA). 1894 SINO-JAPANESE WAR (ASIA). *1873 APACHE (AMERICA). 1894-95 SECOND MADAGASCAR WAR. 1873-1908 ACHANESE WAR (INDONESIA). 1895-96 ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR. 1875-1879 EGYPTIAN-ETHIOPIAN WAR (AFRICA). 1895-98 CUBAN INSURRECTION. 1875-76 BALKAN UPRISINGS (EUROPE). 1896-98 SUDANESE EXPEDITION (AFRICA). 1876-77 SERBIAN-TURKISH WAR (EUROPE). 1897 GRECO-TURKISH WAR (EUROPE) *1876-77 SIOUX AND NORTHERN CHEYENNE WAR . *1898 SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. *1877 NEZ PIERCE WAR (AMERICA). 1899 BOER WAR (AFRICA). 1877-78 NINTH KAFFIR WAR (AFRICA). *1899-1905 PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION. *1878 BANNOCK WAR (AMERICA). 1900 ASHANTI UPRISING (AFRICA). 1878 RUSSO-TURKISH WAR (EUROPE AND CAUCASUS). *1900 BOXER REBELLION (CHINA). *1878-1879 NORTHERN CHEYENNE WAR (AMERICA). 1900 FRENCH TAUREG CAMPAIGNS (AFRICA). 1878-80 SECOND AFGHAN WAR (ASIA). 1900-12 MOROCCAN DISTURBANCES. *1879 PIUTE WAR (AMERICA). 1902 ANGOLA UPRISING (AFRICA). 1879 ZULU WAR (AFRICA). 1903 HOTTENTOT UPRISING (AFRICA). 1879-1884 WAR OF THE PACIFIC (AMERICA). 1903-08 MACEDONIAN GUERRILLA. 1880-1881 TRANSVAAL REVOLT (AFRICA). 1903-05 TIBETAN EXPEDITION (ASIA). 1881 ALGERIAN AND TUNISIAN INSURRECTIONS (AFRICA). 1904 SOUTHERN NIGERIA UPRISING. 1882 EGYPTIAN EXPEDITION (AFRICA). 1904 SOUTHERN NIGERIA UPRISING. 1882-83 COCHIN CHINA (VIETNAMESE) WAR (ASIA). 1904-05 CAMEROON UPRISING (AFRICA). 1883-85 FIRST MADAGASCAR WAR (AFRICA). 1904-05 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR (ASIA). 1883-85 MAHDIST UPRISING (SUDAN--AFRICA). 1904-08 HERORO UPRISING (AFRICA). 1884-85 RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF MERV (ASIA) 1905 FRENCH CONGO UPRISING (AFRICA). 1885 CENTRAL AMERICAN WAR (AMERICA). 1905 TANGANYIKA UPRISING (AFRICA). 1885 THIRD BURMESE WAR (ASIA). 1908-09 MAURITANIAN WAR ( AFRICA). 1885-86 SERBIAN-BULGARIAN WAR (EUROPE). 1911 ITALO-TURKISH WAR (LIBYA) 1885-95 VIETNAMESE REVOLTS (ASIA). 1912 SPANISH-MOROCCAN CONFLICT. 1887-88 ITALO-ETHI0PIAN WAR (AFRICA). 1912 FIRST BALKAN WAR (EUROPE). *1890-91 SIOUX WAR IN NORTH DAKOTA (AMERICA). 1913 SECOND BALKAN WAR
TABLE: Mobilized Potential of Powers, ca. 1914/ Naval Strength of Powers, ca 1914 Dreadnaughts/Pre-Dreadnaughts/Cruisers Russia 12,000,000 0 7 15 Germany 11,000,000 13 20 54 British Empire 8,900,000 (no draft) 20 40 117 France 8,400,000 4 18 29 Austria 7,800,000 3 6 7 Italy 5,600,000 3 8 15 Turkey 2,850,000 statistics not available Japan 1,000,000 2 13 28 United States no conscription 8 22 25 Readings: Section
Lecture 14---THE U.S. ARMED FORCES, 1865-1900.
General in Chief Indian Wars John M. Schofield Emory Upton Santiago/San Juan Hill Secretary of War Reconstruction Nelson A. Miles Alfred Thayer Mahan George Dewey Bureaus Militia Fort Leavenworth William R. Shafter William T. Sampson Leonard Wood Stanton National Guard Fort Riley Theodore Roosevelt Winfield S. Schley Grant Volunteers Newport, R.I. Krag-Jorgenson Russell A. Alger McClelland William T. Sherman Naval War College Springfield William McKinley Halleck Philip E. Sheridan Arthur L. Wagner Manila Elihu Root I. The Post-Civil War Era. IV. Military Science. A) Demobilization. A) Emory Upton. B) The Regular Army. B) Upton's Views. C) The National Guard. C) Upton's Proposed Reforms. D) Military Assignments. D) Upton's Views of Military Policy. E) The Officer Corps. E) Alfred Thayer Mahan and Naval Policy. F) The Navy. V. The Spanish American War--Overview & Impact. II. The High Command System. A) Problems in Mobilization. A) Commanding General and Secretary of War. B) Problems in Training & Transportation. B) The Commanding General and the Bureau Chiefs. C) The Inefficiency of the Bureaus. III. Military Education. D) Problems in Strategy. A) The Academies. E) The Role of the President. B) First Higher Officer's Schools. VI. Conclusions. Readings: Web Readings Sections XIV
Lecture 15---REFORM OF THE U.S. ARMED FORCES, 1900-1917.
Elihu Root France Army Staff College General Staff Leonard Wood Dodge Commission Britain Army War College Chief of Staff Board of Officers Wilkinson Generalstab Naval War College Bureaus Emory Upton Dick Act (1903) Staff Officers Nelson A. Miles Germany National Guard Line Officers S. M. B. Young Secretary of War Secretary of Navy Joint Army & Navy Board I. Elihu Root and the Search for Reform. IV. The Work of the General Staff, 1903-1910 A) Foreign Models. V. Gen. Leonard Wood & the General Staff. B) Upton's Model. VI. Naval Reform. C) An American Staff System Based Upon the German. VII. Evaluation of the General Staff. II. The Root program. A) Field vs. Staff Officers. III. The General Staff. B) Bureau Chiefs vs. Staff Officers. A) Compared to the German Model. C) The Size of the General Staff. B) The Root General Staff. VIII. Conclusion. C) Root's General Staff and Congress. D) The General-in-Chief and Chief of Staff. E) Weaknesses in the Root General Staff System. Readings: Web Readings Sections XVI
Lecture 16: THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND THE UNITED STATES.
Militarism Zimmerman Jutland Aisne-Marne Dreikaisarbund Salonika Front Submarines Cantigny Triple Alliance Mesopotamian Front U-Boats Belleau Woods Triple Entente Caucasus Front Destroyers Chateau Thierry Bosnia-Herzegovina Gallipoli Convoys Somme Moroccan Crisis Caporetto Transport Ypres Tripolitanian War Sinai Front Command Oise-Aisne Balkan Wars Lusitania Selective Service Meuse -Argonne Franz Ferdinand Romanovs AEF Strurmabteilung Young Bosnia Habsburgs American Expedi- Stosstruppen Serbia Hohenzollerns tionary Forces Russian Civil War Galicia Ottomans Foche Paris Peace Conference Tannenberg Bolsheviks Hunter Liggett Versailles Mazurian Lakes Madero Marshall Fourteen Points Western Froint Huerta Patton League of Nations Schlieffen Plan Villa Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Marne John Pershing MacArthur War Guilt Trench Warfare W.H. Sims Truman Roosevelt I. The The Causes of the First World War. IV. The U.S. is Drawn to the War. A) The Alliance System. A) Varying Sympathies. B) Militarism. B) Submarine Warfare C) Imperialism. C) Mexico D) Nationalism. V. Mobilization. II. The Outbreak of War. A) Finances. A) Dress Rehearsals. B) Industry. B) Diplomatic Crisis. C) The Draft. III. The War Spreads. VI. The U.S. Navy and the War. A) Eastern Front. A) Anti-Submarine Duty. B) Western Front. B) Convoy Duty. C) Balkan Front. VII. The AEF on the Western front. D) New Participants. A) The Question of Its Role. E) Russian Revolution. B) Stemming the German Offensive VI. Changes in the Conduct of War. C) The Allied Counteroffensive A) Trenches D) Breakthrough and Armistice. B) Technology VIII. Conclusions Readings: Web Readings Section XVII-XVIII
Lecture 17: UNEASY PEACE, DEPRESSION, AND DICTATORSHIPS, 1918-1935.
Isolationism I. The Fall of Empires. C) Disarmament Disarmament A) The Russian Revolution. D) The League of Nations. Romanovs B) The United States and the War. V. Instability/Economic Collapse. Hapsburgs C) Breakthrough and Armistice. A) Inflation and Recovery. Hohenzollerns II. The Peace of Paris. B) Political Ferment Ottomans A) Paris (1919). C) Depressions & Dictatorships. Brest-Litovsk B) The Treaties. VI. The Growth of Totalitarianism. Clemenceau C) International Security. A) Definition. Lloyd-George III. Conflicts after the First World War. B) Social & Economic Factors. Orlando A) The Russian Civil War. C) Political Factors. W. Wilson B) Nationalism and Communism. VII. The Rise of Soviet Russia Versailles C) A New Europe VIII. The Rise of Fascist Italy. St. Germaine IV. The Search for Peace and Security. IX. The Rise of Nazi Germany. Trianon A) The French Alliance System. X. Common Denominators Neuilly B) The Reintegration of Germany. of Totalitarianism. Sevres Chanak East Prussia Yugoslavia Corporativism National Socialism Lausanne Polish Corridor Belgium Weimar Nazi Mandates War Communism Saar Ataturk Streseman Alsace-Lorraine CHEKA Ruhr Lenin Hitler Bolshevism Josef Stalin Rhineland Cordone Sanitaire Ludendorf Authoritarian Five-Year Plans Tirol Locarno Sturmabteilung (S.A.) Totalitarianism Collectivization Weimar Rapallo Brownshirts Ideology Forced Labor Charles G. Dawes Kellogg-Briand Hindenberg Irredentism NKVD Little Entente Benito Mussolini Gestapo Marxist Personality Cult Balkan Entente Blackshirts Schutzstaffel (S.S.) Bolshevik Fascism Poland Red Guards Anti-Semitism Communist Reparations Czechoslovakia OVRA Concentration Camps Readings: Web Readings Sections XIX
Lecture 18: UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD CRISES, 1931-1941.
War Resources Board Mitchell I. America--Home of the Great Depression. Neutrality Act of 1939 Garand A) Financial Collapse. Greenland P-Fighters B) Widespread unemployment. Iceland B-Bombers C) Economic collapse. National Defense Council Tanks II. Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. Henry L. Stimson T-34 A) The 1932 Election. Frank Kellogg Aircraft Carriers B) New Deal Legislation, 1933-1935 Lend Lease Dirigibles C) The Recession of 1937-1938. Selective Service Air Fleet III. The United States & World Crisis, 1931-40. Army Air Corps Strategic Air Power A) Isolationism and Engagement. Amphibious Warfare Tactical Air Power B) United States Preparedness, 1937-40. Coast Defense Bonus Army C) The Armed Forces. Readings: Web Readings Sections XIX
STRENGTH OF UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES IN 1939
ARMY NAVY MARINES NATIONAL GUARD 227,000 personel 125, 202 personel 19,432 personel 15,000 Air corps 150,000 1926 150,000 2,689 15,000 1926 3,200 2,400
Lecture 19: THE AMERICAN MILITARY IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD I. Military Changes Brought on by World War I. III. The Twenty Year Truce,. A. Strategy. IV. The U. S. and the Coming of World War II. B. Technology. A. U. S. Preparedness. C. Organization. B. Lend Lease. II. Military Developments, 1919-39. V. Conclusion. A. United States. B. Europe and Japan. C. The Origins of World War II Readings: Web Readings Sections XIX
Lectures #20: DEPRESSIONS, DICTATORSHIPS AND THE RISE OF THE AXIS.
Authoritarianism Mussolini Manchuria I. Growth of Totalitarianism. VI. Tide of Aggression. Totalitarianism Blackshirts Ethiopia A) Definition. A) Manchuria & Ethiopia. Ideology Red Guards Haile Selassie B) Social/Economic Factors. B) The Spanish Civil War. Irredentism OVRA Loyalists C) Political Factors. C) Nazi Expansion,. Marxist Corporativism Nationalists II. Rise of Soviet Russia. D) The War Erupts. Bolshevik Weimar Francisco Franco A) Russian Revolutions. VII. Why Axis Aggression? Communist Streseman Rhineland B) Civil War. A) Nationalism/ Militarism. War Communism Hitler Volkdeutsch C) New Economic Policy. B) Propaganda CHEKA National Socialism Anchluss D) Rise of Stalin. C) Economic Penetration. Vladimir Lenin Sturmabteilung Sudetenland III. Rise of Fascist Italy. D) Diplomatic Maneuver. Josef Stalin Brownshirts Czechoslovakia A) Mussolini & Fascism. E) Appeasement & Disunity. Five-Year Plans Hindenberg Chamberlain B) Fascist State, 1922-1935. Collectivization Gestapo Munich IV. Rise of Nazi Germany. Forced Labor Schutzstaffel(S.S.) Danzig A) Weimar Germany. NKVD Anti-Semitism Polish Corridor B) Hitler & National Socialism. Cult of Personality Concentration Camps Fifth Column C) The Nazi State, 1933-1939. Fascism Youth movements V. Common Denominators of Totalitarianism.
Readings:  Web Readings Sections XIX-XX


Lecture #21: WORLD WAR II: THE ROAD TO VICTORY & ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR.
Terms: Outline: Blitzkrieg Tarawa Atlantic Charter I. Trump Cards: U. S. & U.S. S. R. V. Towards Victory. 8th Army Marshalls Teheran A) Axis Invasion of Soviet Union. A) Military Efforts. Afrika Korps Marianas Churchill B) The U. S. and the War. B) Diplomacy. Luftwaffe Iwo Jima Stalin C) War in Asia & Pacific. VI. Towards Cold War. RAF Leningrad Roosevelt II. The Tide of War Turns. A) Occupation Zones & Lend-Lease Moscow Yalta A) Axis Failure in the Pacific. Zones of Influence. Indochina Stalingrad Warsaw Uprising B) Axis Failure in N. Africa. B) Expansion of the Pearl Harbor Urals Curzon Line C) Ais Failure in Russia. Soviet Union. Philippines Siberia Oder-Neisse III. Allied War Strategy and Theatres. C) Division of Europe. Wake El Alamein Elbe A) The Eastern Front. VII. Conclusions. Bataan Torch Potsdam B) The Mediterranean Theatre. Coral Sea Partisans Belorussia C) The Pacific Theatre. Midway Guerrillas Ukraine D) Burma-China-India Theatre. New Guinea Archangel Truman E) The European Theatre. Guadalcanal Murmansk Hiroshima IV. The Elements of Global War. Solomons Overlord Nagasaki A) The War at Sea. MacArthur Normandy Nuremberg B) The War in the Air. Nimitz Second Front Iron Curtain C) The War in the Shadows Gilberts The Bulge
Readings:  Web Readings Sections XXI-XXIV


LECTURE 22: THE AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR II AND THE COLD WAR, 1945-1955.
I. Destruction of the Second World War. IV. Cold War Confrontations. A) Casualties. A) Iran and Turkey. B) Displaced persons and refugees. B) Greece. C) Economic Destruction. C) Berlin. II. Economic Recovery. D) China. A) Western Europe. E) Asian Insurgencies. B) Eastern Europe. F) Korea. III. Towards Cold War. V. Cold War Between the Superpowers A) Occupation Zones & Zones of Influence. A) New Power Equation. B) Expansion of the Soviet Union. B) The Power Vacuum vacuum. C) Territorial Changes. C) Versions of World War II and origins of Cold War. D) Division of Europe. VI. Conclusions. E) The Soviet and United States Military.
Readings:  Web Readings Section XXV




Lecture 23: THE KOREAN CONFLICT, 1950-1953.
I. Background. V. Communist Chinese Intervention. A) "Limited" War. A) Intelligence on Chinese Troop Movements. B) Factors in "Limited War". B) The Fates of the 8th Army and X Corps. II. Uneasy Peace, 1945-1950. C) The Role of Air Power. A) U. S. Military Policy. VI. Second U. N. Counter Offensive, Jan.-June 1951. B) U. S. Diplomatic Policy. A) The Relief of MacArthur. C) Division of Korea. B) Tactical counteroffensive. III. North Korean Offensive, June-Sept. 1950 C) Massed Assaults vs. Firepower. A) North Korean Invasion. VII. Stalemate, Attrition, Negotiations, 7/1951-7/1953. B) The U. N. Decision to Intervene. A) Initiation of Negotiations. C) U.S. Military committment. B) Propaganda and Issues at Negotiations. D) Task Force Smith and the Pusan Defense. C) The War Goes On. IV. The U.N. Counteroffensive-Sept.-Nov. 1950. D) Operation Little Switch. A) The Inchon Operation. E) Armistice. B) Breakout at Pusan. VIII. Conclusions. C) Drive to the Yalu. Readings: Web Readings Section XXVI
Lecture 24: THE VIETNAM CONFLICT.
Indochina Central Highlands Outline: Vietnam Ia Drang Valley I. The Issue of Southeast Asia, 1945-1954. Laos Mekong Delta A) Post-War Insurgencies. Cambodia Iron Triangle B) The Indochina War. Viet Minh ROK II. The U. S. Involvement in Vietnam. Ho Chih Minh ARVN A) Training missions and Aid, 1956-1964. Vo Nguyen Giap Khe Sanh B) The Viet Cong Insurgency and the ARVN. Dien Bien Phu Northern Sector C) South Vietnam's Instability. Geneva Conference Tet Offensive D) The Growth of U. S. Presence. Bao Dai Spring Offensive III. Escalation of the Conflict, 1964-1968. South Vietnam Paris Peace Talks A) The Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution. Hanoi Creighton Abrams B) U. S. Air Operations. Saigon Vietnamization C) Committment of U. S. Ground Forces. Ngo Dinh Diem My Lai D) Military and Political Complications. Viet Cong Ho Chi Minh Trail IV. The Tet Offensive and the U. S. War Effort. Pathet Lao Miao (Hmong) A) The Tet Offensive and its Effects. Khmer Rouge Fish Hook & Parrot's Beak B) Peace Conference and Vietnamization. Gulf of Tonkin Haiphong C) New Forms of Escalation. U. S. Maddox Frederick C. Weyand D) Political Fallout. William Westmoreland Richard Nixon V. The Curtain Falls. Bien Hoa Watergate A) Ceasefire agreement and U. S. Withdrawal. Pleiku Henry Kissinger B) Ceasefire Violations and ARVN Deterioration. USMACV Laos C) The Fall of South Vietnam. Rolling Thunder Nguyen Cao Ky VI. The Effects of the Vietnam War. Robert MacNamara Nguyen Van Thieu A) Effect on U.S. State and Society Walter Rostow POW's B) Effects on the U. S. Military. Lyndon Johnson MIA's C) Worldwide ramifications. Readings: Web Readings Sections XXVIII-XXIX
Lecture 25: THE MILITARY IN THE NUCLEAR AGE.
Yalta Algeria Outline: Potsdam Decolonialization I. The Destruction of World War II. Demobilization Arab-Israeli Conflicts A) Casualties. United Nations Iran-Iraq War B) Economic destruction. Cold War India II. The Eclipse of the European Powers. Allied Control Pakistan A) The rise of the Super Powers. Commisssions Advisors B) The Division of Europe. Chinese Civil War Special Forces C) Soviet Expansion and Western Response. Korean War Vietnam D) Loss of Colonial Power. Atomic Bomb Cuba III. The New Meaning of Total War. Kiloton Cyprus A) The growth of strategic and tactical nuclear arms. Hydrogen Bomb Northern Ireland B) delivery systems. Missles Nicarauga C) Armed forces and the Balance of Terror. Jet aircraft San Salvador D) Social and Economic Affects. Supersonic aircraft Mozambique IV. Conflicts and the Military Outside of Europe. Weapons systems Angola A) Decolonialization and "National Liberation Wars". Heavy armor Namibia B) International Conflicts in the Developing World. Stategic nuclear arms South Africa C) The Role of the Military in the Developing World. Tactical nuclear arms West Morocco V. The Role of Warfare and the Military in the Late Balance of terror Chad Twentieth Century. Nuclear Proliferation Ethiopia A) The Armed Forces and Society. Truman Doctrine Sudan B) High Intensity and Low Intensity Conflict. Cominform Yemen C) Disarmament--Strategic and Tactical. NATO Lebanon D) Proliferation of Warfare. Warsaw Pact Intifada VI. The Nuclear Age or the Guerrilla Age? Josif Broz Tito Afghanistan Greek Civil War Cambodia Korean War Philippines Chinese Civil War Juntas East Germany Coup d'Etat Hungary Military government Poland Disarmament National Liberation Conflict Resolution Guerrillas Peacekeeping Forces Indo-China Multinational Security Malaya Iraq Indonesia Saudi Arabia Readings: Web Readings Sections XXVII, XXX-XXXI