Notes for lectures of Natural Resources Conservation
prior to the 2nd midterm. Save out of your browser as a text file and import
into a word processor then double or triple space and print out. I suggest
putting them in a binder separated by lecture and bring to each class meeting
and to review sessions. Add your own notes between the lines and use a
highlighter to mark major facts and concepts.
Pesticides & Their Management.
Pests & their
Pests are as old as human history;
some agricultural societies worshiped cats and falcons because they controlled grain-eating
Today insects and weeds and
fungi cause hundreds of billions in damage and directly kill thousands and
indirectly kill millions.
What is a pesticide?
Chemical substance designed
to kill a pest.
Includes: insecticides (kills
insects), herbicides (kills plants, usually weeds)
Fungicides (kills molds, fungi)
Also: mitecides (kills
spiders and mites), nematodecides (kills round worms), rodenticides
(kills rats & mice) and some others.
Major types of
Persistent including heavy
metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons
carbamate and organo-phosphate compounds.
Good and bad of
Persistent pesticides require only one application to be effective for long
period (decades for chlorodane termite treatments)
Some are non-toxic the people (DDT for
example) and have saved many lives by preventing diseases.
persistent pesticides can bio-accumulate, they can affect non-target species
and some such as chlorodane and arsenic are carcinogenic (cause cancer.)
problems with persistent pesticides:
DDT discovered in 1939 used
throughout world caused egg shell thinning and biomagnified banned in U.S.1972,
still in use in Mexico, third world.
Agent Orange and Dioxin.
Chlorodane: used for
termites shown to cause liver cancer banned in 1970s.
Lindane still available but
A major local problem: superfund
sites in Conroe.
Used to treat telephone
poles to discourage dry rot and insects.
distillates called creosote used, in 1950s ortho-chlorophenol used (contains
Now copper compounds used.
means that pesticide enters and stays in animal tissue (usually fatty tissue or
mothers milk). Example: PCBs in Oysters.
means that as one goes up the food chain concentration of accumulated pesticide
in tissue increases:
DDT in eagles & falcons, mercury in swordfish.
Naturally break-down in the
Less likely to
bioaccumulation and biomagnified.
carbamates and pyrethrins (found naturally in chrysanthemums).
does not mean non-toxic.
have lower long-term toxicity (called chronic toxicity) but they are
often highly poisonous immediately (high acute toxicity).
common in agriculture. Also used in nerve gas like VX (1 drop on hand is fatal
in minutes). Carbamates caused Bhopal accident in India,
in 2001 for most home uses due to toxicity to children
Non-persistent but shows up
in every water sample taken in Texas.
Low acute toxicity but
requires high application rate.
Resistance is developing
among fire ants so what is alternative? Possible biological control.
Designed to take advantage
of some aspect of pest physiology or behavior.
Growth regulators are an
are one factor that has held off global starvation but at a price.
using monoculture become dependent on heavy use of a broad-spectrum pesticide
that has also killed the natural predatory insects and spiders and even birds.
most pests develop resistance over time and generally faster than beneficial
pest control methods:
Use of bacteria or viruses.
Introduction of beneficial
Use of pheromones and
Use of mixed cropping and
Development of genetically
engineered resistant plants.
Plants can be genetically
engineered to resist pests.
This has been done for
thousands of years through selective breeding.
Now molecular biology allows
creation of plants with properties of other plants such as toxicity to be
In biological control a
natural or introduced predator species is used.
Examples include lady bugs
that eat aphids, wasps that eat caterpillars and praying mantis's that eat just
about anything smaller than them.
Sometimes predator could be
worse that disease (fire ants to control termites?)
There are many species that
prey on pests.
Some are disliked by man
although these are beneficial snakes, spiders and bats are best examples.
Also most wasps, many ants, and
praying mantises and lady bugs.
Lady bugs are cuddly killers
most others are less lovable but can be very effective.
Messing with their
Most insect pests (fungi
also) live a short time so interfering with their reproduction can eliminate
There are several methods:
Use of sterilized males
Use of pheromones to get
their timing off
Use of pheromones plus toxic
Combines use of toxic
chemicals timed appropriately and used sparingly with:
particularly saving existing predators (Birds, bats, spiders).
Mixed cropping and rotation.
Genetically engineered plants.
Water conservation (less
water means better retention of applied pesticides).
Human exposure to pesticides:
workers used to get highest exposure: (Dioxin and DBCP).
workers most at risk now from over spraying.
on fruits can be a problem especially for imported produce.
contamination a problem in some areas (Long Island, NY, CA Central Valley).
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Safe drinking water act.
Food and Drug Administration
More banning (lindane
use of genetically engineered plants and chemicals that are narrow rather than broad
More biological control
(Sony already has a radio control cockroach).
Lec. #12. Water
The significance of water,
The hydrologic cycle,
Essential to all life. Death
within 3 days without water, less in Desert.
Average use in USA 180 Gal.
per person per day.
A perpetual resource but
distribution & degradation is a problem.
Most serious natural
resource challenge in Southwestern U.S.
Refers to the constant
Evaporation from the oceans (and to a lesser extent from
lakes, forests and soil),
Condensation into clouds,
Precipitation as rain or
Return to the ocean via
rivers and groundwater flow.
97.3 % in oceans
90% of fresh remainder is ice caps (Antarctic & Greenland).
Less than .3% in lakes,
streams and groundwater aquifers: supports all terrestrial life.
Only .001% in atmosphere,
but vapor & clouds have huge effect on climate.
Surface Water in USA:
Abundant in southeast
(except some parts of Florida).
and Northeast (Except major urban
areas and coastal areas).
Less abundant in Midwest.
Rare in West, except Pacific
Texas is marginal, except
deep east Texas.
Exists under most of U.S.
but some is saline.
Major aquifers are:
California Central Valley, Columbia, Ogallala, Midwest Buried Valleys,
Floridian, Gulf coast and Atlantic Coast.
Edwards is most important
Both floods and droughts
plague some areas. Many droughts end with a thunder clap. Dams store floodwaters
for later use, but evaporation, interruption of spawning & replenishment of
soils is a negative.
Rare in some areas
continuous in others.
Its hard to define
beginning and hard to change water use patterns.
Texas: Dust bowl, 1951-1957 and 1995-1996, summer 1998 and so far
this year were bad.
Sensitivity to drought
Areas dependent on rain-fed
agriculture are vulnerable
Areas using groundwater less
Case of Edgewood, Texas.
Planning can minimize
adverse impacts, wildlife has more trouble adjusting.
Floods can be of short or
Flash floods typical in
deserts and central/south Texas, while extended floods typical of river valleys
Flood control measures can
Flood plains are flat and
have rich soils so often have been developed.
Waters Role in
Water plays a key role is
sustaining all organisms. Human activities can drastically affect rivers and
Examples: Colorado River,
Columbia River and Trinity River.
Some impacts of human use
and development are beneficial, some are detrimental.
Water Use in
Water is needed by industry
for processing and waste disposal. Oil, gas and petrochemical industries are
big users. Cause of groundwater
overdraft and subsidence in Ship Channel area.
Other industries also depend
on water. Example: Miller brewery.
Water Use in
For domestic purposes
typical family uses 200-400 gallons a day.
65% for watering lawns and
Domestic use varies
regionally, with Arizona Nevada and West Texas very high, New England low.
Water Use in
Uses 70-90% of all water in
west and Midwest.
Most for irrigation of row
crops and pasture. CAFOs and orchards can also be large users.
Most from Fed. water
projects in West and from groundwater pumping in Midwest.
Regional Use of
Water use in highest per
capita in Idaho, Wyoming and Montana (Higher % of farmers).
Total water use highest in
Surface Water use highest in
California, and Texas.
Groundwater use highest in
Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas.
Lec. #13. Water
Resources II, Conservation.
Combines hydrology with planning,
law, economics, aquatic biology, chemistry, engineering and often forestry.
Seeks to minimize flooding,
insure water supply, maintain or improve water quality, etc.
There are increasing demands
on a finite supply of clean water for agriculture, industrial and municipal
uses, to sustain natural environments, provide recreation, generate electricity
and disperse wastes.
Many of these uses are
Level of Water
Varies from region to
region. California, Arizona and Nevada have most development.
In New England only 6% of
water is consumed.
In California 42% consumed.
In Colorado River Basin of
Southwest 92% or more consumed.
Overuse of surface
Causes increasing salinity
Loss of fisheries and
Loss of power production and
Example: Colorado River,
Causes higher pumping costs,
Lower water quality
Salt water intrusion
Example: Central Valley.
Baytown & Jersey Village Texas.
Building dams can be an
answer, but not always. Is water flowing into ocean wasted? Example: Lake Mead
Infiltration basins, injection wells, wastewater reuse and desalinization.
Examples: Las Vegas. Yuma,
AZ. Saudi Arabia.
Wise use of water
needed since lack of planning can lead to crisis. Example: Edgewood, Texas.
it is difficult since costs are high and interests are entrenched, but planning
for future is essential or.
Franklins observation that We only learn the true value water when the well
will be proved right once again.
water use can be cut 30% painlessly: Low flow toilets (1.6 vs. 5 gal) fix
leaks, mist shower heads, replace grass with rock, etc.
flow toilets and shower heads, Xerascape, Reuse of greywater.
Do Not Wash! Scientific Dirt Test in
Progress & Conserve Water: or
Take a shower with a
Pollution control rules have
caused industry to discharge less/recycle more
Some areas like ship channel
have switched sources from groundwater to surface water.
Some industries have sold
Some industries have
Example: Miller Brewing Co.
Example Mirage hotel uses
only 300 acre feet per year. Less than a mid-sized farm.
Recycles greywater, pumps
perched groundwater and treats it with reverse osmosis. Uses xerascaping in
some areas drip irrigation in others.
Wheeling is transferring a
Usually this involves
transfer from agriculture to urban users in the same state.
However, sometimes urban
users have paid for conservation measures and taken the water that was saved.
Example Imperial Irrigation
Why is water
conservation not more common?
methods cost $.
is cheaper than dirt, so conservation is economically unattractive.
uses are more economically rewarding than others.
New sources of
Good quality surface water
sources are generally already used to a high degree.
Only by taking away water
from one group can additional surface water supplies be developed in most local
areas (particularly in the arid areas of the country)
Groundwater to the
Groundwater resources are accounting
for an increasing proportion of water supply and there are largely untapped
aquifers in many areas, but contamination and overdraft remain a threat.
However, conservation is the
cheapest new source of water.
Not out of my
Inter-basin transfers are possible, but very
controversial. Examples of proposals include:
San Luis Valley, Peripheral
Canal, Trans-Texas Project, NAWAPA.
Will Lake Superior make
Minnesota the richest state in the country? Not likely.
Other new sources:
Sea water desalinization not
economically practical at present.
Saline water treatment is
marginal. Example: Clay Thorne and his Tar.
over water in the Middle East, in developed countries and arid areas will grow.
often form borders.
Danube Dam and Jordan Rivers.
pollution originating in one nation may impact downstream countries.
may require relocation of many people.
Nations writes many reports but has almost no power.
Lec. #14. Water
Quality & Pollution.
What is water
Besides measuring quantity
of water the other water related parameters measured in the field usually
involve quality measurements.
Quality measurements can be
of the water body itself or of a source
of pollution such as a factory discharge, the run-off from a farm or sewer
H2O and then some
constituents: Ca, Mg, CO3, SO4, Fe not a problem.
elements Cl, Na, As, Pb, Mn, Radon gas and microorganisms.
Anthropogenic: Human & Animal wastes, hydrocarbons, metals, pesticides, and
Measure of minerals and
organic matter in solution.
Different than suspended
Usually measured as
dissolved ions that change conductivity of water.
Water more than 1,000 parts
per million is brackish, more than 10,000 ppm is saline.
cloudiness of water, gives an indication of clarity.
Why is turbidity
Turbidity is an indication of
presence of microscopic scum & clay in suspension.
This provides a nice hiding
place for nasty microbes, so turbid water is difficult to chlorinate and
Thus when it rains,
Huntsvilles water treatment plant must shut down.
(DO) is needed to support fish and break-down wastes, low DO is
common in summer in stagnant water
Low DO means dead fish...
Temp. that is too high ,say
due to discharges from a power plant is a problem (Example: Tampa, Florida),
but warm water is enjoyed by some species like lobsters (Example New
Higher temperatures promote
solution of more minerals, some can be toxic.
pH is a measure of acid/base
Either low or high pH can be
Ranges from 0-14, 7 is
0-7 is acidic, high acidity
can leach toxic heavy metals.
7-14 is alkaline high
alkalinity can hurt plants, make water hard to chlorinate.
Natural or not:
Water quality can involve natural
constituents or anthropogenic contaminants...
Natural constituents can be
of three types:
1) Inorganic minerals,
2)Organic substances and 3) organisms (such as microorganisms) .
Include salts (ionic
compounds) and silica...
Major salts are calcium,
magnesium, sodium, chloride, iron.
All natural water has some
Heavy metals like lead and
arsenic are less common but more of a problem since they can be toxic to
In some areas (western
Colorado) radioactivity is naturally in water as radon gas (from break-down of uranium)
Greatest danger is in the
bacteria, animals (amoebas).
that cause problems in U.S. are giardia, crypto-spiridium
(Example: Beer City).
In third world countries
(Mexico, Arkansas, etc) amoebas and coliform bacteria are common: dont drink
that rum and coke on the rocks
Watch out for the Hotel Lord in Merida.
Point source. Factory or city sewage outfall.
Heavy metals and human wastes.
Non-point source: agricultural field or
streets, parking lots. Animal wastes and pesticides.
Hydrocarbons may come from a point source (like a refinery) or a
non-point source (like a parking lot).
Anthropogenic contaminants include: human and animal waste,
fertilizers, oils, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals.
Most are present at low
levels so sophisticated lab methods, not field methods are used.
Most are present at some
level in all surface water bodies (example: diazinon).
Human and animal
Composed of substances that
when broken down by micro-organisms deplete the dissolved oxygen in water that
is needed for fish.
Impact of waste is measured
as biological oxygen demand (BOD).
Also, sewage has ammonia and
fecal coliform and strep bacteria.
Usually related to power
Can be bad or beneficial to
Examples: Tampa Bay, vs.. Clearwater River in Florida &
Seabrook in New Hampshire.
Toxic substances in
Synthetic organic chemicals
like PCBs and DDT.
Hydrocarbons like gasoline
or crude oil.
Solvents like TCE, PCE.
Heavy metals like lead,
chromium, mercury and arsenic.
Radioactivity: usually Radon
Dispersion: Dilution is the solution
Biochemical decay: Microbes
convert to CO2 use up O2.
pollutants like DDT, PCBs and heavy metals stay in sediments.
Example: Minimata Bay,
Invisible problem that is
widespread and very difficult to remediate.
Aquifers are vulnerable
depending on proximity of pollution sources, permeability of soils, depth to
water, and rates of groundwater flow.
What are aquifers.
Aquifer: a area of rock or
soil that can store and transmit water.
Two types: Water table &
Water table aquifers are more vulnerable to pollution.
Point sources: LUST.
Landfills. Toxic waste dumps. Industry.
Non-point sources: Urban
run-off. Agricultural fields. Feedlots. Mines. Septic tanks.
Major on-going problems are
landfills, septic tanks and agriculture. Laws have improved industry &
Over 1 million LUST sites.
Millions of anaerobic septic
systems in poorly draining soils (a major problem in Texas),
20,000 plus solid waste
landfills, most not built in compliance with RCRA.
3,000 + hazardous waste sites, 1,200 on superfund list.
Is your drinking
Probably yes, possibly no,
but how safe is safe?
Many rural water systems are
out of compliance with Safe Drinking Water Act standards,
Also many private wells.
drinking water risks:
400,000 people sick in
Milwaukee, 16 people die in Las Vegas from cryptospiridium.
EPA estimates 6,000
additional cancer cases per year due to chlorination of organic laden water
limited, standards for turbidity are being made tougher.
Water pollution control
treatment: aerobic plants and/or anaerobic process.
Industrial process controls.
& disposal of toxic wastes.
treat groundwater pollution.
systems phased out, replaced by aerobic systems (possible air quality and
health hazard if improperly maintained).
good, the bad and the smelly...
is added to water to kill harmful microorganism that would kill millions in U.S.
otherwise, but it can be toxic to fish and organisms.
can also produce tri-halomethans that can cause cancer in people.
with lots or organic matter (like Lake Livingstons in summer) needs heavy
chlorination, could be a problem...
Status of Water
Quality in USA:
Most dramatic progress in
water quality in USA in last 25 years.
Most towns have secondary
Most discharges by industry
have been reduced or eliminated.
Non-point source pollution
major remaining problem.
Status of Water
Quality in other countries:
Water quality is improving
in Canada, Japan and Western Europe
Going down-hill in
developing countries with new industries:
Mexico, India, China, Nigeria, Indonesia.
Along with shortage (which
makes quality poorer) is biggest
resource problem facing developing countries with the most people.
A wetland is an area that meets
two of the three following criteria:
Hydrologic: consist standing
Soils: presence of hydric
Plants: obligate hydrophilic
1) Saturated soils or
stagnant standing water on the soil surface for more than 14 days per year over
Rivers, permanent lakes,
springs and ponds are wet but not wetlands.
Presence of hydric soils:
These are usually histosols:
Saturated, reduced oxygen, low pH, high organic matter soils at the
Sometimes are sands or muds
with low organic matter content.
Quick sand is included.
3)Presence of obligate
wetland vegetation on a consistent basis.
Wetlands provide: detention
storage of flood waters thus reducing flood damage,
Recharge of groundwater
Input of nutrients into
Break-down of harmful water
Habitat for development of
fish and aquatic species.
About 50% of all wetlands in
U.S. have been drained mostly lost to farmland and now urbanization.
Loss rate has declined and some wetlands have been restored or
manmade wetlands used as
mitigation or for water treatment.
Examples: Phoenix, AZ,
are recognized as a resource not something to be dreaded or drained.
by section 404 of Clean Water Act also somewhat by NEPA.
Wetlands Inventory program in National Biological Survey to map wetlands.
for COE permit and possible mitigation and/or Abanking@.
Ellwood Shores Study.
Camp Crowder study.
MacDonald Creek problems.
Food chains and
The over-enrichment of an
A limiting factor supplied
( inadvertently) will
over-enrich an ecosystem.
Aquatic ecosystems have
trouble with eutrophication.
in sewage and detergents: Example: Lake Okochobee and Lake Livingston.
Things that are in short
supply and are essential for an organism.
Nutrients and space are most
Examples: phosphorous, nitrogen, iron. Activity of predators is another
Nitrate, Ammonia, &
These are limiting
nutrients if introduced can cause algal blooms (eutrophication).
Mostly from sewage and
Use of phosphates in
detergents banned in 1970s.
Fate of toxic
chemicals when released into the environment move through biogeochemical cycles
and the food chain
Accumulate in higher concentrations at higher trophic levels.
toxins are persistent.
combination of persistence and spread through food chain causes bio-accumulation.
DDT in eagles, PCBs in oysters and man.
toxic substances in the environment:
in air settle out with precipitation.
in water tend to be absorbed in
sediments. Some may be bio-degraded by bacteria.
in groundwater may migrate very slowly and remain for years.
problems due to ignorance:
Marine & Fisheries Resources:
The oceans cover 3/4 of the
Except for 200 mile
territorial waters the oceans are actually owned by no person or government.
Tradition allows unlimited
rights to the high seas...
Oceans are the outstanding
example of a Common Property Resource.
The lack of owners does not
imply a lack of problems.
Hardin the tragedy of the commons
Use it or loose
With no owner, the resource
is likely to be over-exploited by individual people, companies or countries
each seeking to get as much as possible or risk losing the resource to others.
are a complex system with immense flows of nutrients, energy, tides, currents,
fish and up- welling.
productivity. Productivity is high in coral reefs and bays and in estuaries.
everywhere and not a fish in sight
Deep oceans are productive
in zones of up-welling (Pacific coast of non-tropical North and South America,
North Atlantic & Antarctic).
Deep oceans are not
productive in most other areas. No nutrients= no food chain.
1st well in 1899 Summerland, CA. today in water 7,500 feet deep or
Where: Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Angola.
Why: Sea-beds are sedimentary deposits, oceans
cover most of earth.
much: 500 billion barrels, but production costs $20/bbl vs. as low as $1/bbl on
Where: Caspian Sea, Persian
Gulf & Gulf of Mexico.
Hard to bring on shore.
Sometimes factors other than
economics drive extraction:
Example: Coal Oil Point N.G.
feet down are spheres of manganese, nickel, copper & cobalt.
available, costs are now much higher than from Africa. Also impact of mining is unknown on black smokers: Save our friends the
giant sea worms..
deposits are over 200 miles off-shore ownership is an issue.
The #1 ocean resource.
Heavily depleted in many
areas, little exploited elsewhere:
Over-fishing for Cod in Atlantic, Salmon
in Pacific, Anchovies in Mediterranean, & Peru, Tuna in tropical Pacific.
The sad fate of crabs and
over-harvested in many areas: abalone in Calif. Crabs in Alaska,
Oysters in Chesapeake & Galveston.
These shell-fish communities
vulnerable to pollution, siltation and diversion of fresh water.
high protein fish like herring, anchovy, mackerel used in animal feeds have
highest total value.
dinner fish like tuna, cod, salmon are in shorter and shorter supply and cost
species like pollock, angle fish, lumpfish, orange roufy are often found in
deep water and ugly as sin
But can be tasty.
Little fishing in African
coastal waters (Red Sea and Horn of Africa) but poverty, instability and diet
New sources in high arctic
and Antarctic using factory ships
Deep water species: Monkfish
(a shark) and Orange Roufy (New Zealand).
Nearly driven to
extinction. Example: elephant seal.
Whaling now limited to
Bowheads taken by Eskimos.
Japan & Norway fought ban.
Norwegian attitude was
hypocritical: Be green... unless it hunts your country economically.
Oil spills from tankers
& platforms. Example: Exxon Valdez.
Dumping garbage and sewage
sludge. Now discontinued most places,
example: Hudson Canyon.
Offshore incineration of
hazardous wastes: Now in North Sea.
The saga of the M.V.
Lec. # 17. RANGE-LANDS:
are areas where grasses predominate.
for gazing domesticated animals; cattle, sheep, and goats.
in semi-arid areas such as the middle-east, Australia and the interior of Asia
and North America
mountainous areas unsuitable for agriculture.
in the seasonally dry tropics of Latin America and Africa.
to erosion and desertification, since they are semi-desert even without
to produce meat and wool leads to spread of deserts and erosion of top soil in
droughts cause herds to exceed lands carrying capacity.
past, nomadic lifestyles minimized impacts, now settlement is encouraged for
economic and political reasons.
ECOLOGY OF RANGES:
predominate in seasonally arid areas or where fire is common, also thin soils
and very cold areas do not support
grasses can be pushed out by undesirable inedible shrubs like sagebrush,
mesquite and tamarisk.
& plant chemical warfare.:
Gazing animals selectively
remove some species like grasses, others are resistant even to goats: cactus,
Some plants are allelopathic:
creosote bush & chemise emit toxic vapors poisoning soil, limiting competition.
Beef converts only 5% of energy in the vegetation
into available food. Uses 1,000 gal. H2O per lb of meat.
in many areas no food could be created for humans by other means.
feed beef is a luxury in a hungry world. Kobe beef more so.
and chickens are more common in developing world and more suitable to
grow out cattle which were formerly on grazing land can increase weight 50% in
are more efficient.
shrimp, salmon and oysters.
of hunter/gatherer methods for fish and shellfish may be numbered.
pollution and scarcity are limiting factors.
introduced by Spanish.
centered in Texas after civil war. Crash in 1870's. Sheep wars.
of National Forests, Federal Grazing
Service and BLM, FLPMA.
& ranches are now CAFOs.
million acres of grasslands & 320 million acres of forests for grazing, 99%
is in Western states,
is private and so is the best.
(including Texas) has the most problems with overgrazing.
and growth of undesirable scrub brush.
states and dryer areas are most subject to problem.
Reservations are in the worst shape. Then State lands, BLM, and Forest Service
lands tend to have the best stewardship.
herd size below carrying capacity.
animals out and rotate between gazing areas.
destructive animals like sheep and goats or move these animals over large
riparian areas and fence off other vulnerable areas.
invaders, seed with hardy native grasses, perennial preferably.
prescribed burns to stop brush.
banks and install detention ponds & guzzlers.
Controversial: exterminated wolf, caused loss of bear, eagle, mountain lion & and
wolverine. Also, P. Dog control killed black-footed ferret.
is too wily, it has increased.
Compound 1080, or traps, or better
gazing lands in Latin America. Fastest growth in seasonally dry areas in Latin
dry forest is being cleared for large
cattle ranches to supply the North American and Asian demand for beef.
GAZING ON PUBLIC
Controversial; causes damage &
fees dont cover costs. $1.35 per month per A.M.U.
Some want higher fees and
No more MOO in 2002"...
Ranchers want lower fees and
seek to preserve a way of life.
Option: The Buffalo Commons.
Technological advances can
have unanticipated problems
Example: Mad cow disease.
History: simple idea: add
meat protein to cattle food.
Sheep brains have scrapie.
Link to variant Klienfeld/Jacob
CAFOs as a
CAFOs are confined animal
Can have many negative
environmental and social impacts as well as poor living conditions for the
pressure for multiple uses. Example: Santa Fe area.
from factory farms.
to other meat sources: Buffalo, Emu, Etc.
Resources Conservation Lec. #18.
Forest Resources Management I.
One of the most abundant and important of all
Frequently the subject of controversy.
A renewable resource, but
only on a long time scale.
Concept of multiple use
Concept of Sustained
Yield is important.
STATUS OF WORLD FORESTS:
Most in Boreal areas:
Much in Tropics: Amazonia,
No net loss of temperate and
Rapid loss (45% gone, 1% more annually) of rain forests.
In Europe privately owned,
In Russia, Canada government
In USA is a mix,
In tropical forests often no
10 billion acres (31% of
Forests vary from tropical
rain forest to seasonally dry tropical forests to chaparral (forests) to mixed
woodlands to temperate hardwood forests to temperate coniferous forests to
temperate rain forests to boreal forests.
Hardwoods: Oak, maple,
hickory, etc. Found in eastern US. Often in mixed stands (a collection of
trees) with mostly younger trees often on former farmland.
Useful for furniture and
not efficient for large
scale harvesting and not useful for paper or plywood industry.
Softwoods: dominant in
South and West: More uniform stands often larger trees and faster growing
(particularly in wet areas). Most useful for lumber, plywood and pulp.
Conifers: Pine, spruce, fir.
Dominant in South and West:
More uniform stands, often larger trees and faster growing (particularly in wet
Most useful for lumber,
plywood and pulp.
Worth more hardwoods or
Oak, maple, hickory, etc.
Found in eastern US.
Often in mixed stands with
mostly younger trees, often on former farmland. Useful for furniture and for
heating. Not efficient for large scale harvesting and not useful for paper or
Location and character of
720 million acres in U.S.
830 million in Canada.
2/3 have commercial value.
Divided into hardwood and
Common in U.S. in South-
east, East, Northwest and higher elevations in western USA.
Rare in Midwest and dryer
areas of southwest.
This county is at transition
zone between grassland and pine/hardwood forest ecosystems.
National Forests in West,
also in Texas, Missouri, Carolina and Appalachian areas.
Private pine plantations in
Texas, Georgia, Pacific Northwest and Maine.
Small stands of mixed
hardwoods throughout eastern USA, particularly mountains and New England.
Currently growth exceeds
harvest in hardwoods and in South, while harvest exceeds growth in Pacific Northwest
and some western states.
Problems or lack thereof
exist due to economics and growth rates and surrounding environment.
Location and character of
720 Million acres in U.S.
(830 million in Canada).
2/3 have commercial value.
Divided into hardwood and
Forests in Texas:
Private forest lands:
about 4 million acres of pine plantations, Champion, Louisiana Pacific,
International Paper mostly pine plantations.
National Forests: Four
in Texas, Sabine, Angelina, Davy Crocket and Sam Houston. All date to 1930's.
No harvesting due to
lack of management plans in N.Fs.
Loss on long leaf pine
and bottom-land hardwoods/old growth trees and Red Cockaded Woodpecker are
Forests in Walker
Sam Houston National Forest
LP & Champion major
Private lands: Gibbs
This county is at transition
zone between grassland and pine-hardwood forest ecosystems.
Uses of forests:
Forests are used by:
Animals for habitat.
To generate oxygen.
To provide a watershed.
To prevent erosion.
To provide recreation
To provide timber
Role of fire:
Fire is necessary to insure
Frequent small fires keep
brush & pests in check are needed for reproduction.
Elimination of fires causes
dead fall and sick trees, high a density & lack of habitat.
(prescribed) burning is now a management practice.
TYPES OF FIRES:
Ground fires, Surface fires,
Crown fires, Controlled burns, Fire storms.
Intensity depends on: wind
speed, humidity, wind direction, slope,
aspect, fuel and moisture content.
Will fires burn up-hill or
Fire breaks, look-outs,
phosphate bombers, hand crews, smoke jumpers and pumpers. All used in past to
suppress all fires.
Now Let it burn policy for natural fires,
prescribed burns in some places.
Controversy and costs of suppression & in-holdings remain
Impact of fires.
Depends on type of fire,
Depends on climate, slope
and soil type,
Depends on nature of the
Intense crown fires can kill seed trees & even sterilize
After all fires: Rapid input
of nutrients, more light, more erosion, loss of some habitat.
Overall increase in habitat
after a short period early success ional species: grass, fireweed.
ecosystem after 1989 firestorm .
Controversy occurs where old
growth and slow growing trees are on public lands or in areas with
vulnerable slopes or sensitive species are present.
Examples: Spotted Owl, Salmon spawning areas, Old growth Redwoods
in CA, and Douglas fir in Alaska.
Insect control & use of
do trees have standing
Lec. # 19.
Forest Resources II
Management & silviculture.
Importance of Forestry
Forests: One of most
abundant and important of all resources.
Frequently the subject of
A renewable resource, but
only on a long time scale.
Concept of multiple use is
of Sustained Yield:
Over long term timber harvest and other resources are maintained or
Multiple Use Concept:
Need to support many users without over-exploitation by any one group.
Balance of multiple
Long term outlook to provide
for sustained yield of timber and related resources.
Need to assess &
minimize damage from:
Post harvesting soil
Loss of endangered species
Requires going into the
forest and measuring size, age and density of trees.
The estimation of health and
harvestable board feet of timber present in a stand or multiple stands of
Cable yarding (Railroad yarding), Harvesting (skidding) with heavy equipment
Haul roads are as big a
controversy as thinning.
Replanting & regeneration.
Trees are now farmed just
Only it takes 10-100 years
to harvest the crop.
Other things foresters & silviculturists look for:
Age and ring thickness: Take
core from tree.
Pests: Pine bark beetles.
Moisture in tree.
Soils and soil moisture.
Endangered Species & Exotic Species.
A species in danger of
extinction at least in some portion of its range.
Range: (the area it is
What is a species:
A genetically distinct
group of organisms.
Now can be based on DNA, in
past morphology (shape or color) was used.
Definition is a difficult
problem since many sub-species can interbreed.
Example: Cutthroat trout.
Preservation of habitat is
biggest factor in preventing a species from becoming in danger of extinction.
Other factors: stopping
unlimited exploitation (particularly of species that reproduce slowly),
Reason to preserve
Esthetic reasons: Call of
Practical reasons: Medicinal
plants, products like alligator leather.
Red wolf in Texas (except
the finger eating ones at the zoo),
Grizzly bear in California
(now only on the state flag).
Species in danger
Many more added every year,
Particularly in tropical
China and India.
in the USA.
Vertebrates: Grizzly bear,
Wolf, California condor, American crocodile,
Most endangered species are
not large or attractive, but the ones that are get the most attention and have
the most money spent on their recovery.
Over $50 million spent on
Condor, Wolf, Bald Eagle.
Pity the Furbish Lousewart
or the Salt Marsh Harvester Mouse.
Apache, Alvord Cut, Lahontan Cut, Silver King Creek Cut, Pyramid lake cut,
Little Kern River Golden.
so many Desert fishes?
makes a separate species?
Numerous species of fresh
Burying beetles, urban and
Ash Meadows aster.
Frequently desert plants or
bog plants limited to small isolated habitats.
Why no bacteria???
The Bruneau Hot Springs
Snail and the Socorro isopod are about the smallest.
Localized species can be
used to protect larger areas and focus debate.
Example: Barton Springs Salamander.
Water is a common thread in
More plants than animals in
Texas are endangered most animals are fish.
Lack of public lands, Mexico
Protection of habitat.
Fines for harm.
Injunctions from Federal
courts against development.
Duty of landowners to
protect species on or passing through their lands, even little snails.
Endangered Species Act has
Example Tellico Dam and
Northern spotted owl.
Widespread species more
problematic than localized ones.
Some species are attractive
and more likely to get protection.
Species that depend on
habitat that man uses are more likely to cause controversy.
Some regions are more
preservation of endangered species:
Aransas NWR, pond at Franys Cathouse.
Reintroduction: Black Footed Ferret.
Captive Breeding: CA Condor
Habitat restoration: Ash Meadows Riffle beetle.
Banning pesticides: Eagle
Role of preserves:
Zoos (last hope for many
Reintroduction: California Condor
and Golden Lion Tamarind.
Recovery plans can
Examples: Kendal Warm
Springs Dace, do nothing,
or involve limited efforts:
Santa Barbara Island Live
or they can be costly and
Or highly complex
Colorado River...4 listed
fish species in lower river.
Huge release of water to
create a flood to generate habitat for spawning.
Trade-off damage to economy,
more air pollution, damage to other species some also endangered.
Cost over $50 million for
study, $100 million per year.
Wolf reintroduction into
Buffalo in Buffalo, Texas?
Bears in East Texas until
1960s in Hardin County. Now a few in Big Bend.
If re-introduced would they
Bears can be an
species to save?
Sometimes protecting one
species hunts another.
Wolves , mountain lions and
other predators may kill other endangered species.
Some man made features like
dams help one endangered species but hurt another.
Which species do we like
Issue: no roaming
on the range.
Bison control history
Issue ESA does not
apply on Indian Lands
Native peoples may hunt
endangered species if traditional.
Hunting by outside hunters
on a fee basis is legal even for endangered species.
Prohibited by treaty.
Trade mostly involves
bear gall bladder, tree frog skin, rhinoceros horn or
Decorative products: ivory,
snake skin, butterfly wings and rhinoceros horn again.
a species is introduced where predators and other limiting factors do not exist
it may take over:
Examples: Tumble weeds, rabbits in Australia,
Fire Ants, Kudzu, Tamarisk, algae in Mediterranean, Zebra Mussel...
The sea weed that ate the
Wildlife Management & Biodiversity:
Ecosystems are under pressure from man. They sustain life on earth
through maintaining bio-geo-chemical cycles like oxygen and carbon cycle.
Diversity of ecosystems is
under threat even when ecosystem remains. Many ecosystems have been fragmented.
The place species live.
Some are small, some
Wyoming examples: Kendal
Warm Springs Dace: 200 feet of spring & creek, Grizzly Bear range: 250
Some species are adaptable,
some are not:
Texas examples: Coyotes,
cockroaches, are adaptable.
Arkansas River Shiner, Red
Cockaded Woodpecker are not adaptable.
Define hunting/fishing rules
spatially and temporally.
Provide adequate cover &
Cull species selectively
Hunting and Fishing For Game Species:
Hunting injects into
billions local economies
Fishing injects even more.
Healthy (at least if you for
the hunters) outdoor recreation
Provides connection to our
Delineate home ranges
Protect diverse niches
Isolate rare and endangered
species from interference
Cull or relocate is over
Tracking with radio collars
and pit tags
Use of GIS to map and
Both genetic variability
within a species and the mix of species within an ecosystem.
Biodiversity helps to insure
survival of species and health of ecosystems.
If genetic pool becomes too
small and inbred it becomes susceptible to disease and genetic problems.
Cheetahs, Folks in Blind Fish Cave, KY.
Some Habitats have low
diversity: High arctic and Manhattan.
Even areas with lower
diversity are under threat:
Habitat is being
increasingly fragmented (divided into smaller and smaller pieces).
Causes of reduced
Most ecosystems have fair
Introduced species and
changes in land-use can cause biodiversity to diminish.
Over 40 species of
indigenous fish in Texas, several extinct, 20 endangered.
From: Overdraft of
groundwater, introduced species, dams, water pollution.
Some ecosystems have high
Rain forests have the
highest terrestrial diversity, coral reefs may have higher total diversity.
In most areas reefs are not
under threat, but in Philippines and Southeast Asia they are under attack by
fishing practices. Siltation is a problem in many other areas.
The focus of most efforts to
preserve biodiversity, because a high proportion of all land species live in tropical and equatorial
Rainforests are under
serious threat due to deforestation.
Driven by economic factors
and global economy.
Most serous problems in
Brazil, Central America, Southeast Asia (Borneo, Malaysia).
Protection only in Costa
Rica, Belize, Australia (richer and/or more democratic countries).
Two basic types of
Slash and burn agriculture,
In some areas rainforest
diversity is replaced with monoculture of palm oil or rubber trees.
Efforts to preserve
biodiversity have centered on preservation: such as World Biosphere Preserves
in Peru, Brazil.
Other countries have tried
to both preserve and conserve rainforests through: Ecotourism, Limited
agriculture and sustained yield forestry:
Example: Costa Rica.
Costa Rica. Model
for wise use.
Contains estimated 6% of all
12% in National Parks, 10%
more in forest preserves, investment incentive program, ecotourism, new
rainforest compatible products: nuts, cocoa, butterflies, teak.
Started with the Quakers in
1948 at Monte Verde, quetzal was main reason.
High rates of productivity,
profusion of organisms, stable conditions over millions of years has caused
complex interrelationships to form and millions of specialized species to
Many species of plants have
evolved that may have medicinal value, mostly because of toxins present like
Toxic frogs &
Also evolution of many
bacteria and viruses such as Yellow Fever...
Reason to preserve
Esthetic or moral reasons.
Practical reasons: Medicinal
plants and gene pool for development of new food sources, etc.
New products, things to eat:
Avoid dangers of spread of
diseases: Ebola virus, AIDS