Helena Halmari

PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS


Books:

Snellman, Anja. 2013. Pet Shop Girls (novel) [Original title: Lemmikkikaupan tytöt, Helsinki: Otava, 2007]. Translated from the Finnish by Scott Kaukonen and Helena Halmari. Independence, MN: Ice Cold Crime. 262 pp.

Halmari, Helena and Tuija Virtanen, eds. 2005. Persuasion across genres: A linguistic approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (Pragmatics and Beyond New Series, Vol. 130). 257 pp.

Halmari, Helena. 1997. Government and codeswitching: Explaining American Finnish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (Studies in Bilingualism Series, Vol. 12). 276 pp. 

Scholarly editing:

Journal of Finnish Studies (refereed, ISSN 1206-6516), editor-in-chief:
Volume 15 (1&2), December 2011. 180 pp.
Volume 16 (1), August 2012. 143 pp.
Volume 16 (2), May 2013. 168 pp.
Volume 17 (1&2), March 2014. 261 pp.

Articles
:

2011. “Pet Shop Girls.” An excerpt from the novel Pet Shop Girls [Original title: Lemmikkikaupan tytöt, Helsinki: Otava, 2007, by Anja Snellman]. Translated from the Finnish by Scott Kaukonen and Helena Halmari. In Szoka, Elzbieta and Bratcher, Joe W. III (eds), DG: The Dirty Goat 25. Austin: Host Publications. 265-280.

      Reprinted in: Sattar, A., Gibson, D.W., and Soni, R. (eds). 2013. Other Places: The Sangam House Reader 2. 389-396.

2011. [Co-authored with Timothy Regetz.] Syntactic aspects of code-switching in Oxford, MS Bodley 649. In Schendl, Herbert and Wright, Laura (eds). Code-switching in early English. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. (Topics in English Linguistics 76). 115-153.

2011. Alliteration in inaugural addresses: From George Washington to Barack Obama. In Roper, Jonathan (ed.), Alliteration in culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 45-61.

2011. Political correctness, euphemism, and language change: The case of ‘people first.’ Journal of Pragmatics 43.3. 828-840.

2010. [Co-authored with Irene Halmari-Meneses.] Finnish women in Gainesville, Florida. Siirtolaisuus – Migration 2. 18-22. Also available at: http://www.migrationinstitute.fi/art/pdf/SM_2010_2.pdf

2009. Variation in death metaphors in the last statements by executed Texas death row inmates. In Mahlberg, Michaela, González-Díaz, Victorina, and Smith, Catherine (eds), Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference - CL2009, University of Liverpool, UK, 20-23 July 2009. Article #460. http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/publications/cl2009/#colloquia. (8 pages) 2008.

2008. On the language of the Clinton-Dole presidential campaign debates: General tendencies and successful strategies. Journal of Language and Politics 7.2. 247-270.

2006. Conceptualizing the code of commands: On the directionality of language switching. In Watson, G. and Hirvonen, P. (eds). Finno-Ugric language contacts. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. (Opuscula Fenno-Ugrica Gottingensia, Vol. 9). 91-104.

2005. "I'm forgetting both": L1 maintenance and codeswitching in Finnish-English language contact. International Journal of Bilingualism 9.3-4. 397-433.

2005. Finnish maledicta and euphemisms. Maledicta 13. 63-72.

2005. In search of 'successful' political persuasion: A comparison of the styles of Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan. In Halmari, H. and Virtanen, T. (eds). Persuasion across genres: A linguistic approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 105-134.

2005. [Co-authored with Tuija Virtanen.] Persuasion across genres: Emerging perspectives. In Halmari, H. and Virtanen, T. (eds). Persuasion across genres: A linguistic approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 3-24.

2005. [Co-authored with Tuija Virtanen.] Towards understanding modern persuasion. In Halmari, H. and Virtanen, T. (eds). Persuasion across genres: A linguistic approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 229-244.

2004. Codeswitching patterns and developing discourse competence in L2. In Boxer, D. and Cohen, A. D. (eds). Studying speaking to inform second language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 115-146.

2002. [Co-authored with Robert Adams.] On the grammar and rhetoric of language mixing in Piers Plowman. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 103.1. 33-50.

2001. Diachronic variation in a discourse pattern: A case of execution reports. In Laakso, V., Leino, J., and Raukko, J. (eds), Postcards, implicitness, constructions. Vantaa: Tummavuoren kirjapaino. 313-326.

2001. [Co-authored with Jan-Ola Östman.] The soft-spoken, angelic pickax killer: The notion of discourse pattern in controversial news reporting. Journal of Pragmatics 33. 805-823.

Reprinted in: Long, M., Spivey, J., and Patrick, A. 2004. Techne. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. 181-194.

2000. [Co-authored with Jan-Ola Östman.] Yleisen kielitieteen ja soveltavan kielitieteen suhteista. [On the relationships of general and applied linguistics.] In Sajavaara, K. and Piirainen-Marsh, A. (eds), Näkökulmia soveltavaan kielentutkimukseen.[Aspects on applied linguistics.] Jyväskylä: Center of Applied Linguistics, University of Jyväskylä. 31-65.

2000. Towards additive multilingualism: A sociolinguistic perspective on the maintenance of Alabama and Coushatta in Texas. In Karttunen, F. and Östman, J.-O. (eds), Issues of minority peoples. Helsinki: University of Helsinki. (Department of General Linguistics, Publications No. 31). 63-97.

1999. Power relationships and register variation in Väinö Linna's "Here, under the Northern Star." Journal of Finnish Studies 3.2. 36-49.

1999. Discourse of death: The function of the local newspaper coverage of Huntsville, Texas executions. In Verschueren, J. (ed.), Language and ideology: Selected papers from the 6th International Pragmatics Conference, Vol. 1. Antwerp: International Pragmatics Association. 179-205.

Reprinted in: Long, M., Spivey, J., and Patrick, A. 2004. Techne. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. 161-180.

1998. Case-assignment and adverbials in Finnish-English bilingual sentences. In Niemi, J., Odlin, T., and Heikkinen, J. (eds), Language contact, variation, and change. Joensuu: University of Joensuu. (Studies in Languages, Vol. 32). 98-110.

1998. Functional differences between Finnish-English and English-Finnish intrasentential codeswitching: Is there an explanation? In Haukioja, T. (ed.), Papers from the 16th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. Turku: Publications of the Department of Finnish and General Linguistics of the University of Turku. 153-165.

1998. Language maintenance on the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation. Anthropological Linguistics 40.3. 409-428.

1998. [Co-authored with W. Robert Cooper.] Patterns of English-Finnish codeswitching in Finland and in the United States. In Luukka, M.-R., Salla, S., and Dufva, H. (eds), Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. [Linguistics in Estonia and Finland: Crossing the Gulf]. AFinLAn vuosikirja 56/AFinLA Yearbook Jyväskylä: Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus. (Publications de l'Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée 56). 85-99.

1998. Transparency versus opaqueness: The case of Finnish and English. In Cooper, W. R. (ed.), Compare or contrast? Current issues in cross-language research. Tampere: University of Tampere. (Tampere English Studies 6). 53-79.

1996. On accessibility and coreference. In Fretheim, T. and Gundel, J. K. (eds), Reference and referent accessibility. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (Pragmatics and Beyond New Series, Vol. 38). 155-178.

1996. In-character play as practice of conversation skills. In Schinke-Llano, L. and Rauff, R. (eds), New Ways in Teaching Young Children. Alexandria, VA: TESOL. (TESOL New Ways Series/Series editor: Jack C. Richards). 97.

1995. The organization of episode structure in Finnish/Finnish and Finnish/Anglo-American business telephone conversations: An intercultural perspective. In Wårvik, B., Tanskanen, S.-K., and Hiltunen, R. (eds), Organization in discourse: Proceedings from the Turku conference. Turku: University of Turku, Department of English. (Anglicana Turkuensia, Vol. 14). 273-281. 1994. On accessibility and coreference. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 17.1. 35-59.

1994. [Co-authored with Wendy Smith.] Code-switching and register shift: Evidence from Finnish-English child bilingual conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 21.4. 427-445.

1993. Code-switching as an evaluative device in bilingual discourse. Issues in Applied Linguistics 4.1. 91-118.

1993. Dividing the world: The dichotomous rhetoric of Ronald Reagan. Multilingua 12.2. 143-176.

1993. Intercultural business telephone conversations: A case of Finns vs. Anglo-Americans. Applied Linguistics 14.4. 408-430.

1993. Structural relations and Finnish-English bilingual code-switching. Linguistics 31.6. 1043-1068.

1992. Code-switching strategies as a mirror of language loss: A case study of two child bilinguals. In Staub, D. and Delk, C. (eds), The Proceedings of the Twelfth Second Language Research Forum. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI: Papers in Applied Linguistics-Michigan. 200-215.

1991. Kasvatammeko kielen osaajia vai kielen käyttäjiä? [Are we producing language learners or language acquirers?] Tempus: The Journal of the Federation of Foreign Language Teachers in Finland 4. 6-7
 

Dissertation:

1994. A government approach to Finnish-English intrasentential code-switching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Department of Linguistics, University of Southern California. (Dissertation Abstracts International 55. 1994: 2366A. Also available in the USC Graduate Students In Linguistics -series.)


MA-theses
:

1990. On dichotomous political rhetoric: With special reference to Ronald Reagan's language. Unpublished Master's thesis. Department of English, California State University, San Bernardino.

1986. Nuorison kirjastonkäytöstä: Vuosina 1965-69 syntyneiden lainaaminen Lempäälän pääkirjastossa vuosina 1981 ja 1984. Unpublished pro gradu -thesis. Department of Library and Information Science, University of Tampere.

1984. On the concept of euphemism: With special reference to President Ronald Reagan's language. Unpublished pro gradu -thesis. Department of Philology I, University of Tampere.
 

Book reviews/notices:

2009. Bilinguality and literacy: Principles and practice (2nd ed.) by Manjula Datta (ed.): Book notice. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 31.1. 138-139.

2008. Young EFL-pupils reading multicultural children's fiction: An ethnographic case study in a Swedish language primary school in Finland by Charlotta Häggblom: Book notice. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 30.3. 411.

2004. Developing advanced literacy in first and second languages: Meaning with power by Mary J. Schleppergrell and M. Cecilia Colombi (eds): Book review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 26.3. 476-477.

1999. Interaction and grammar by Elinor Ochs, Emanuel A. Schegloff, and Sandra A. Thompson (eds): Book review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21.1. 149-150.

1998. With literacy and justice for all: Rethinking the social in language and education (2nd ed.) by Carole Edelsky: Book notice. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 20.3. 444.

1998. Lokatiivit lauseen semanttisessa tulkinnassa: Ajan, omistajan, paikan ja tilan adverbiaalien keskinäiset suhteet suomen kielessä [Locatives and semantic interpretation of the sentence: On mutual relations of adverbials indicating time, possession, space and (internal) state in Finnish] by Tuomas Huumo: Book review. Journal of Finnish Studies 2.1. 78-81.

1998. Language mixing in infant bilingualism: A sociolinguistic perspective by Elisabeth Lanza: Book review. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 21.1. 83-89.

1996. Bilingualism (2nd ed.) by Suzanne Romaine: Book review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18.3. 369-370.

1996. Approaches to discourse by Deborah Schiffrin: Book review. Language in Society 25.1. 115-118.

1993. Language issues in literacy and bilingual/multicultural education by M. Minami and B. P. Kennedy (eds): Book review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 15.2. 265-266.
 

Creative writings:

2011. Kuvia lapsuuteni Hollosta [Images from Hollo, my childhood village]. (Creative non-fiction). In Mäkelä, Ritva (ed.), Kylät kiskojen kolkkeessa: Hakkarin, Hollon, Nurmisaaren ja Tuulialan kylähistoriikki [Villages by the Tracks: A history of Hakkari, Hollo, Nurmisaari, and Tuuliala]. Sastamala: Vammalan Kirjapaino. 86-95.

2000. Kindness over malice, love over hatred, compassion over cruelty. In Yu Chen Chee, Elsie (ed.), Women's future, world's future: Book of women's visions for the year 2050. Singapore: University Women's Association Singapore. 97.
 

Conference presentations:

2014. Peer-reviewed publication: Balancing quantity with quality. A keynote speech at “Reach for the Stars: A Workshop for PhD Students on How to Publish in Peer-reviewed Journals with a High Impact Factor,” Tvärminne, Finland, March 21, 2014.

2013. Promoting Finnish and Finnish American literature in North America. A panel organized by Helena Halmari at FinnFest 2013, Houghton, Michigan, June 19-23, 2013.

2013. On rhetorical motivations for language switching in Oxford MS Bodley 649. A paper presented in the session “Multilingualism in the Middle Ages” at the 48th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 9-12, 2013.

2013. Codeswitching in a late medieval sermon collection. A paper presented at the Sam Houston State University First International Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Thought, Huntsville, Texas, April 4-6, 2013.

2013. Alliterative patterns and language switching in Oxford, MS Bodley 649. A paper presented at the conference Alliterativa Causa, at the Warburg Institute, London, January 18-19, 2013.

2012. The Journal of Finnish Studies: History, scope, and future. A paper presented at the American Finns in Pre-War Karelia Conference, Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk, Russia, September 27-28, 2012. (Invited lecture)

2012. Maintaining Finnish as a heritage language. A lecture and discussion (2 hrs) presented at FinnThunder 2012, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada, July 27-29, 2012. (Invited lecture)

2011. A look into American Finnish: What happens when languages meet? A paper presented at FinnFest 2011, San Diego, CA, August 10-14, 2011. (Invited lecture)

2011. Limited input and the acquisition of rich morphology. A paper presented in the panel “Limited input: Circumstances and consequences” (organized by Helena Halmari) at the 8th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Oslo, Norway, June 15-18, 2011.

2011. Limited input: Circumstances and consequences. A colloquium organized by Helena Halmari at the 8th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Oslo, Norway, June 15-18, 2011.

2010. [Co-presentation with Timothy Regetz.] Code-switching patterns in Oxford, MS Bodley 649. Poster presented at the College of Humanities and Social Sciences First Annual Research Conference. Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, April 9, 2010.

2009. The case for the abstract case: Evidence from bilingual codeswitching. Paper presented at the Case in and across languages conference, Helsinki, Finland, August 27-29, 2009.

2009. Variation in death metaphors in the last statements by Texas death row inmates. Poster presented at the Corpus Linguistics Conference, Liverpool, UK, July 20-23, 2009. Print version of the paper: In Barnden, John., Lee, Mark, Littlemore, Jeannette, Moon, Rosamund, Philip, Gill, Wallington, Alan (eds), Corpus-based approaches to figurative language: A corpus linguistics 2009 colloquium. Colloquium Companion. Birmingham, UK: The University of Birmingham, School of Computer Science. 85-92. (Cognitive Science Research Papers 09-01. July 2009. ISSN 1368-9223)

2009. Grammatical aspects of codeswitching in Late Medieval macaronic sermons. Paper presented at the 44th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 7-10, 2009.

2008. The language of death and dying: A contrastive analysis of the last statements made by executed offenders vs. the death-row crime summaries issued by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Paper presented at Critical Approaches to Discourse across Disciplines 2008 Symposium, University of Hertfordshire, UK, July 10-12, 2008.

2007. [Co-presentation: with Robert Adams.] Political correctness, euphemism, and language change: The case of 'people first.' Paper presented at the 10th International Pragmatics Conference, Göteborg, Sweden, July 8-13, 2007.

2007. Codeswitching in spoken and written modes: Evidence from e-mail correspondence. Paper presented at the 6th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Hamburg, Germany, May 30-June 2, 2007.

2007. Alliteration in Inaugural Addresses: From George Washington to George W. Bush. Paper presented at the Alliteration in Culture conference, Warburg Institute, London, January 19, 2007.

2003. Doing "small talk": An international teaching assistant perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, Virginia, March 22-25, 2003.

2002. Eleven years of bilingualism: A longitudinal study on the pragmatics and syntax of Finnish-English codeswitching. Paper to be presented in the workshop Finno-Ugrian languages in contact with English or another Germanic language at the Eleventh International Conference on Methods in Dialectology, University of Joensuu, Finland, August 5-9, 2002.

2002. Codeswitching patterns and developing discourse competence. Paper presented in the colloquium Studying speaking to inform second language learning at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Salt Lake City, Utah, April 6-9, 2002.

2001. "I'm forgetting both": L1 attrition and codeswitching in Finnish-English language contact. Paper presented in the colloquium Can spiders forget how to spin spider webs?: Language attrition and some unresolved questions at the 3rd International Symposium on Bilingualism (ISB3), Bristol, UK, April 18-20, 2001. (Invited)

2000. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H. and Adams, R.]. Case-assignment in mixed English-Latin sentences in Piers Plowman. Paper presented at the ESSE-conference in Helsinki, Finland, August 25-29, 2000.

2000. On pragmatic motivations for code choice in Finnish-English codeswitching: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Paper presented in the panel From intentionality to variability: Pragmatic motivations for codeswitching at the 7th International Pragmatics Conference, Budapest, Hungary, July 9-14, 2000. (Invited)

1999. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H. and Roth, M.]. Capital punishment in Huntsville, Texas: A linguistic-historical approach to examining local media coverage of the death penalty. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Toronto, Canada, November 17-20, 1999.

1999. [Co-presentation: Adams, R. and Halmari, H.]. On the grammar and rhetoric of language mixing in Piers Plowman. Paper presented at the Midwest Modern Language Association, Minneapolis, MN, November 4-6, 1999.

1999. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H. and Östman, J.-O.]. The angelic, curly-haired pickax killer: Media portrayal of the controversy around the Karla Faye Tucker execution. Paper presented at AILA, Tokyo, Japan, August 1-6, 1999.

1999. Models of codeswitching and longitudinal data: Coping with "intrusive inflections" and "missing language carriers". Paper presented in the colloquium Grammar and codeswitching at the 2nd International Symposium on Bilingualism (ISB2), Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, April 14-17, 1999. (Invited)

1999. Co-organizer [with Virtanen, T.] of the colloquium Persuasion across genres on the brink of the 21st century. The Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Stamford, Connecticut, April 6-9, 1999.

1999. In search of "successful" political persuasion: A comparison of the styles of Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton. A paper presented in the colloquium Persuasion across genres on the brink of the 21st century at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Stamford, Connecticut, April 6-9, 1999.

1998. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H., Poncho, D., and Obe-Poncho, Y.]. Preserving language and culture on the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation. A paper presented at the Fifth Annual Conference on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations, Sam Houston State University, Texas, September 26, 1998. (Invited)

1998. The discourse of death: The function of the local newspaper coverage of the Huntsville executions. A paper presented in the panel The dynamics of news events in the media at the 6th International Pragmatics Conference, Reims, France, July 19-24, 1998.

1998. On the language of the Clinton-Dole presidential campaign debates: General tendencies and successful strategies. A paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Association for Applied Linguistics, Seattle, Washington, March 14-17, 1998.

1997. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H. and Cooper, W. R.]. Patterns of English-Finnish codeswitching in Finland and in the United States. Paper presented at the Fall Symposium of L'Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée, Tallinn, Estonia, November 14-15, 1997.

1997. Case-assignment and adverbials in Finnish-English bilingual sentences. A paper presented at the 24th Kielitieteen päivät/24th Linguistics Meeting, Joensuu, Finland, May 28-29, 1997.

1997. On the role of government as the guiding force in the Finnish-English language contact. A talk presented at the Tilburg University Symposium on Code Switching and Language Change, Tilburg, The Netherlands, May 15-16, 1997.

1997. The maintenance and loss of the Alabama and Koasati languages on the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation in Polk County, Texas. A paper presented at the Mosaic of Texas Culture national conference, Abilene, Texas, April 4-5, 1997.

1997. On the state of trilingualism on the Alabama-Coushatta reservation. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America 1997 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, January 2-5, 1997. (Section on Endangered Languages/Field Reports.)

1996. Functional differences between Finnish-English and English-Finnish intrasentential codeswitching: Is there an explanation? Paper presented at the XVIth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Turku, Finland, November 14-16, 1996.

1996. Power and language in American fiction. A poster presented at the 1996 11th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Jyväskylä, Finland, August 4-9, 1996.

1995. Transparency versus opaqueness: A case of Finnish and English. A presentation at the Seventh National Research Seminar "Compare or Contrast: Current Issues in Finnish-English Cross-Language Research," University of Tampere, Finland, November 16-17, 1995. (Invited)

1995. [Co-presentation: Smith, W., Axelrod, M., Halmari, H., Abidin, L., Bozzetti-Engström, M., Taberski, D., and Wang, K.]. The function of questions: A cross-cultural examination of gender and language. Poster presented at the Functional Approaches to Grammar Conference at the Summer Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 24-28, 1995.

1995. Power relationships and register variation in fictional dialogues. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Association for Applied Linguistics, Long Beach, California, March 25-28, 1995.

1995. The interplay of syntax and discourse in the explanation of Finnish-English code-switching. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America 1995 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 5-8, 1995. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 382 009)

1994. The organization of episode structure in Finnish/Finnish and Finnish/Anglo-American business telephone conversations: An intercultural perspective. Paper presented at the Conference on the Organization of Discourse, Turku, Finland, August 10-14, 1994. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 386 914)

1993. Code-switching or borrowing?: Explaining Finnish-English bilingualism. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Second Language Research Forum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 19-21, 1993.

1993. Interrupting overlaps in business telephone conversations: An intercultural perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Association for Applied Linguistics, Atlanta, Georgia, April 16-19, 1993.

1992. [Co-presentation: Halmari, H. and Smith, W.]. Pragmatic code-switching in conversation: A case study. Paper presented at the 26th annual convention of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Vancouver, British Columbia, March 3-7, 1992.

1992. Code-switching strategies as a mirror of language loss: A case study of two child bilinguals. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Association for Applied Linguistics, Seattle, Washington, February 28-March 2, 1992.

    Versions of the above paper were also presented at:

    1992. The 12th Annual Second Language Research Forum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, April 2-5, 1992.

    1991. The First Annual Santa Barbara Workshop in Finnish Linguistics. University of California, Santa Barbara, California, June 22, 1991. (Invited)