Chemistry-Based Animations

PDF and HTML augmentations of many of these are also available.

Czech Translations of Selected Animations

Flash Version (2020 end-of-life)
HTML5 Version
(Browser window may need resizing to make HTML5 buttons work.)
Chromatography
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Flash
132 KB
GC-MS interface and ionization source
mass analyzer and mass detector
total ion chromatogram
mass spectra
solvent delay
column bleed
confusion between chromatographic peaks and mass spectral peaks
GC/MS Hydrocarbon Mixture HTML5 650 KB
GC separation of a mixture of straight chain and branched hydrocarbons (C10 through C16)
solvent dichloromethane
slow temperature program
compounds identified via MS
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/MS/MS
(CH3)2SeS vs. (CH3)2SeO2
356 KB
GC/MS/MS/MS HTML5 2.3 MB
Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection
instrument schematic
multiple chromatographic methods with MS as the detector
ionization modes (EI+ or EI-)
precursor ions, product ions
Fast Gas Chromatography HTML5 2 MB
Three common methods of fast GC:
  • fast temperature programming
  • fast carrier gas flow
  • multi-capillaries
role of injector in fast GC
No Flash available
Also called multiple ion monitoring.
Selected Ion Monitoring GC/MS HTML51.3 MB
SIM chromatogram
total ion chromatogram
selected ion chromatogram
choosing SIM fragment list
Also called two dimensional gas chromatography.
Also called two dimensional gas chromatography
one long nonpolar column
one short polar column
connected together by modulator
one detector at end of second column
Gas Chromatography/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry HTML5 2.4 MB
Orthogonal design
Inline design
spectral skew
Gas Chromatography HTML5 2.2 MB
Split/Splitless injector
GC column
temperature programmable oven
detector
Split/Splitless Gas Chromatography Injector HTML5 600 KB
Split mode
splitless mode
constant carrier gas flow through column
Temperature Programming in GC HTML5 2 MB
Fine control of the rate of GC oven temperature increase
systematically effects retention time of compounds eluting from column
Cryogenic Trapping in Gas Chromatography HTML5 3.2 MB
Cryogenic temperatures of GC
cryogens are most often liquid nitrogen (LN2)
cold trapping
purge and trap
No Flash available
GC Animated GIF Movie
GIF animation internal buttons don't work.
Photoionization Detector (PID) HTML5 4.9 MB
Schematic
replaceable UV/vis lamps of different energies
analyte ionization potential effects detector response
Flame Ionization Detector (FID) HTML5 771 KB
Fuel and oxidant burns to form flame
detector highly sensitive to hydrocarbons
linear over six orders of magnitude
6-Port High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) HTML5 1.1 MB
Sample loop (20 ┬ÁL common)
sample loop filled off-line
injection made by physical rotation of value
Old HPLC Flash
654 KB
with sound*
Gas Chromatographic Solvent Focussing HTML5 2.3 MB
Solvent boiling point needs to be lower than analyte bps
analyte peak shape sharpened by solvent focussing
Old Focus Flash
7.6 MB
with sound*
No Flash available
Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector HTML5 1.9 MB
Schematic
combustor tube
igniter
flame pulses
gated amplification
element channels
No Flash available
No Flash available
Spectroscopy/Spectrometry
Jablonski Diagram HTML5 1.5 MB
Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electronic transitions
between molecular energy states
Photomultiplier Tube HTML5 328 KB
How a photomultiplier tube works

Photoelectric Effect HTML5 953 KB
What are the consequences of changing:
  • changing the the wavelength of light shining on a phototransducer
  • increasing the energy of light shining on a phototransducer
  • setting the energy of impinging light near the stopping point
Light Grating HTML5 953 KB
How a simple grating disperses light
308 KB
Double Beam Ultraviolet/Visible HTML5 1.8 MB
Function of light chopper/sector mirror
source lamp
light path
reference cuvette
sample cuvette
phototransducer
 
>20 year-old "animation" Spectrophotometer GIF Movie 283 KB
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy HTML5 1.2 MB
X-ray tube
sample holder
X-ray fluorescence
X-ray absorbance
detection
monochromator/stage rotation
K-edge spectra
 
Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry with Charge Coupled Detection HTML5 1.2 MB
ICP spectrometer polychromator schematic
dispersion elements
2-D CCD detector
Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry with Roland Circle and PMTs HTML5 555 KB
ICP spectrometer polychromator schematic
dispersion elements
multi-PMT Roland Circle detection
Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry HTML5 905 KB
Source of metal/metalloid hydrides
optical detection cell
flame system
light path
monochromator
absorption detection
calibration
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry HTML5 1.5 MB
Nebulizer
laminar flow burner head
fuel and oxidant
hollow cathode lamps
monochromator and PMT
Electrophoresis
Capillary Electrophoresis Injection Evaluation HTML5 506 KB
Comparison of available CE injection modes:
  • constant pressure
  • constant voltage
  • constant vacuum
Capillary Electrophoresis HTML5 2.4 MB
Buffers
capillary tube
high voltage power
detection
Modes of Capillary Electrophoresis HTML5 2.4 MB
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)
capillary isotachophoresis (CITP)
capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF)
similarities and difference between these three common modes of CE
Gel Electrophoresis HTML5 1.4 MB
Gel preparation of vertical or horizontal gels
polyacrylamide or agarose gels
high voltage power supply
detection techniques of separated bands:
  • dye staining
  • fluorescence
  • autoradiography
Chemiluminescence
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
Miscellaneous
300 KB
Quantum Number Primer HTML5 2.5 MB
General Chemistry I Podcasts
277 MB for all lessons
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
An HTML5 version not available
No Flash available
Titration Movie GIF
4.7 MB distorted colors
Earth Flash
212 KB
no sound
Earth Flash
196 KB
with sound
No Flash available
Cu(NH3)42+ Flash
8.6 MB
with sound*
Copper GIF Movie
2.9 MB
pleasingly distorted
No Flash available
An HTML5 version not available
I created this "scientific" animation in 1996.

These animations support the teaching of concepts in chemistry in freshman through graduate level courses. The chemistry courses that profit from these sorts of multimedia content include freshman general chemistry, instrumental analysis, environmental chemistry, atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The gold foil experiment movie augments a hybrid on-line freshman chemistry course.


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