Primary Sources: English Manorial Documents
[From "English Manorial Documents," Translations and Reprints from the original Sources of European History, E. P. Cheyney, tr., vol. 3, no. 5 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1907), pp. 3-32]
The basic economic unit of Medieval Christendom was the manor. Below are some primary sources that give an interesting picture of the economy and social relations of medieval manors. The first source is an extract from the Domesday Book. The Domesday Book was a economic survey of England commissioned by William of Normandy in the wake of the Norman Conquest. In the form in which the Domesday record has been preserved, the entries are arranged under each county by landholders, the possessions of the king being named and described first, then those of the largest landholders, and so successively till freeholders are reached who have only a single manor, or sometimes only land in a manor. Peter de Valence is one of the medium landholders.
A DOMESDAY MANOR: HECHAM, ESSEX, A. D. 1086.
Peter de Valence holds in domain Hecham, which Haldane a freeman held in the time of King Edward, as a manor, and as 5 hides. There have always been 2 ploughs in the demesne, 4 ploughs of the men. At that time there were 8 villeins, now lo; then there were 2 bordars, now 3; at both times 4 serv woods for 300 swine, 18 acres of meadow. Then there were 2 fish ponds and a half, now there are none. At that time there was 1 ox, now there are 1S cattle and 1 small horse and 18 swine and 2 hives of bees. At that time it was worth 69S., now 4£ 10s. When he received this manor he found only 1 ox, and 1 acre planted. Of those 5 hides spoken of above, one was held in the time of King Edward by 2 freemen, and was added to this manor in the time of King William. It was worth in the time of King Edward 10s., now 22s, and William holds this from Peter de Valence.
Below is a survey of a manor held by a monastery, the Abbey of Peterborough.
A MANOR OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY, ABOUT A. D. 1125
In Werminton are 7 hides at the taxation of the king. And of this land 20 full villeins and 29 half-villeins hold 34 virgates and a half; and for these the full villeins work 3 days a week through the year; and the half tenants as much as corresponds to their tenancies. And all these men have 16 plows, and they plow 68 acres and a half, and besides this they do 3 boonworks with their plows, and they ought to bring from the woods 34 wagon loads of wood. And all these men pay 4£. 11s. 4d. And to the love feast of St. Peter 10 rams and 400 loaves and 40 platters and 34 hens and 260 eggs. And there are 8 socmen who have 6 plows. In the demesne of the court are 4 plows of 32 oxen, and 9 cows and 5 calves, and 1 riding horse and 129 sheep and 61 swine and 1 draught-horse and 1 colt. And there is 1 mill with 1 virgate of land and 6 acres which pays 60s. and 500 eels. And Ascelin the clerk holds the church, with 2 virgates of land, from the altar of St. Peter of Borough. Robert, son of Richard, has 2 virgates and a half. In this vill 100 sheep can be placed.
The 13th century Manor of Alwalton also belonged to the addey of Peterborough.
A MANOR OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY, A. D. 1279.
The abbot of Peterborough holds the manor of Alwalton and vill from the lord king directly; which manor and villwith its appurtenances the lord Edward, formerly king of England gave to the said abbot and convent of that place in free, pure, and perpetual alms. And the court of the said manor with its garden contains one-half an acre. And to the whole of the said vill of Alwalton belong 5 hides and a half and 1 virgate of land and a half; of which each hide contains 5 virgates of land and each virgate contains 25 acres. Of these hides the said abbot has in demesne 1 hide and a half of land and half a virgate, which contain as above. Likewise he has there 8 acres of meadow. Also he has there separable pasture which contains 1 acre. Likewise he has there 3 water mills. Likewise he has there a common fish pond with a fish-weir on the bank of the Nene, which begins at Wildlake and extends to the mill of Newton and contains in length 2 leagues. Likewise he has there a ferry with a boat.
Free Tenants. Thomas le Boteler holds a messuage with a court yard which contains 1 rood, and 3 acres of land, by charter, paying thence yearly to the said abbot 14S.
Likewise the rector of the church of Alwalton holds 1 virgate of land with its appurtenances, with which the said church was anciently endowed. Likewise the said rector has a holding the tenant of which holds 1 rood of ground by paying to the said rector yearly 1d.
And the abbot of Peterborough is patron of the church.
Villeins. Hugh Miller holds 1 virgate of land in villenage by paying thence to the said abbot 3s. 1d. Likewise the same Hugh works through the whole year except 1 week at Christmas, 1 week at Easter, and 1 at Whitsuntide, that is in each week 3 days, each day with 1 man, and in autumn each day with 2 men, performing the said works at the will of the said abbot as in plowing and other work. Likewise he gives 1 bushel of wheat for benseed and 18 sheaves of oats for foddercorn. Likewise he gives 3 hens and 1 cock yearly and 5 eggs at Easter. likewise he does carrying to Peterborough and to Jakele and no where else, at the will of the said abbot. Likewise if he sells a brood mare in his court yard for l0s. or more, he shall give to the said abbot 4d., and if for less he shall give nothing to the aforesaid. He gives also merchet  and heriot, and is tallaged at the feast of St. Michael, at the will of the said abbot. There are also there 17 other villeins, viz. John of Ganesoupe, Robert son of Walter, Ra]ph son of the reeve, Emma at Pertre, William son of Reginald, Thomas son of Gunnilda, Eda widow of Ralph, Ralph Reeve, William Reeve, William son of William Reeve, Thomas Flegg, Henry Abbot, William Hereward, Serle son of William Reeve, Walter Palmer, William Abbot, Henry Serle; each of whom holds 1 virgate of land in villenage, paying and doing in all things, each for himself, to the said abbot yearly just as the said sough Miller. There are also 5 other villeins, viz. Simon Mariot, Robert of Hastone, Thomas Smith, John Mustard, and William Carter, each of whom holds half a virgate of land by paying and doing in all things half of the whole service which Hugh Miller pays and does.
Cotters. Henry, son of the miller, holds a cottage with a croft which contains 1 rood! paying thence yearly to the said abbot 2S. Likewise he works for 3 days in carrying hay and in other works at the will of the said abbot, each day with 1 man and in autumn 1 day in cutting grain with 1 man.
Likewise Ralph Miller holds a cottage with a croft which contains a rood, paying to the said abbot 2s.; and he works just as the said Henry.
Likewise William Arnold holds a cottage with a croft which contains half a rood, paying to the abbot 2d.; and he works just as the said Henry.
Likewise Hugh Day holds a cottage with a croft which contains 1 rood, paying to the abbot 8d.; and he works just as the said Henry.
Likewise Sara, widow of Matthew Miller, holds a cottage and a croft which contains half a rood, paying to the said abbot 4d.; and she works just as the said Henry.
Likewise Sara, widow of William Miller, holds a cottage and a croft which contains half a rood, paying to the abbot 4d.; and she works just as the said Henry.
Likewise William Kendale holds a cottage and a croft which contains 1 rood, paying to the abbot 8d.; and he works just as the said Henry.5
* * * * * * *
Likewise William Drake holds a cottage with a croft which contains
half a rood, paying to the abbot 6d.; and he works just as the said Henry.
There are there also 6 other cotters, viz. William Drake Jr., Amycia the widow, Alice the widow, Robert son of Eda, William Pepper, William Coleman, each of whom holds a cottage with a croft which contains half a rood, paying and doing in all things, each for himself, just as the said William Drake.
Likewise William Russel holds a cottage with a croft which contains half a rood, paying to the abbot 8d.; and he works in all things just as the said Henry Miller.
There are moreover there 5 other cotters, viz. Walter Pestel, Ralph Shepherd, Henry Abbot, Matilda Tut, Jordan Mustard, each of whom holds a cottage with a croft which contains half a rood, paying thence and doing in all things to the said abbot just as the said William Russel.
Likewise Beatrice of Hampton holds a cottage and a croft which contains 1 rood, paying to the abbot 12d.; and she works in all things just as the said Henry.
Likewise Hugh Miller holds 3 acres of land, paying to the abbot 42d.
Likewise Thomas, son of Richard, holds a cottage with a croft which contains half a rood, and 3 acres of land, paying to the abbot 4s.; and he works just as the said Henry.
Likewise Ralph Reeve holds a cottage with a croft which contains 1 rood, and 1 acre of land, paying to the abbot 2s.; and he works just as the said Henry.
Likewise each of the said cottagers, except the widows, gives yearly after Christmas a penny which is called head-penny.
Below is an account of a manor of Bernehorne from court record.
A MANOR OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, A.D.1307.
Extent of the manor of Bernehorne, made on Wednesday next after the feast of St. Gregory the Pope, in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of King Edward, in the presence of Brother Thomas, keeper of Marley, John de la More, and Adam de Thruhlegh, clerks, on the oath of William de Gocecoumbe, Walter le Parker, Richard le Knyst, Richard the son of the latter, Andrew of Estone, Stephen Morsprich, Thomas Brembel, William de Swynham, John Pollard, Roger le Glide, John Syward and John de Lillingewist, who say etc., that there are there all the following things:
The jurors say that the principal messuage and its garden with the herbage and curtilage are worth yearly 6s. 8d.; and the dovecote is worth yearly 5s.; and the windmill is worth yearly 20S.
And there are there 1 2 acres of thick undergrowth whence the pannage and herbage are worth yearly 2S,
And there are there 42 acres of maritime land in a certain place called Scotsmarsh, each acre of which is worth yearly 12d., the sum being 425.
And there are there 7 acres and 1 rood of maritime land in a certain place called Aldithewisse; and 47 acres and 3 roods of maritime land in a certain place called Flittermarsh, each acre of which is worth yearly 12d., the sum being 55s.
And there are there 22 acres of maritime land in two places called Pundfold and Longrech; and 7 acres of maritime land in a certain place called Wyssh, and 8 acres and 3 roods of maritime land in a certain place called Upcroft marsh, and 3 acres and a half of maritime land in a certain place called Redewysshe; and each acre is worth yearly 12d., the sum being 41S- 3d
* * * * * * *
The total of the acres of woods is 12 acres. The total of the acres of arable land is 444 acres and 3 roods, of which 147 acres 4 roods are maritime land, 101 acres marshy land, and 180 acres waste ground.
The total of the acres of meadow is r3 acres 1 rood.
The total of the whole preceding extent r8£. 10S. 4d.
John Pollard holds a half acre in Aldithewisse and owes 18d. at the four terms, and owes from it relief and heriot.
John Suthinton holds a house and 40 acres of land and owes 3s. 6d. at Easter and Michaelmas.
William of Swynhamme holds 1 acre of meadow in the thicket of Swynhamme and owes 1d. at the feast of Michaelmas.
Ralph of Leybourne holds a cottage and 1 acre of land in Pinden and owes 3s. at Easter and Michaelmas, and attendance at the court in the manor every three weeks, relief and heriot.
Richard Knyst of Swynhamme holds two acres and a half of land and owes yearly 4S.
William at Knelle holds 2 acres of land in Aldithewisse and owes yearly 4S.
Roger le Glede holds a cottage and 3 roods of land and owes 2S. 6d. at Easter and Michaelmas.
Alexander Hamound holds a little piece of land near Aldithewisse and owes 1 goose, of the value of 2d.
The sum of the whole rent of the free tenants, with the value of the goose, is 18S. 9d.
They say moreover that John of Cayworth holds a house and 30 acres of land, and owes yearly 2S. at Easter and Michaelmas; and he owes a cock and two hens at Christmas, of the value of 4d.
And he ought to harrow for 2 days at the Lenten sowing with one man and his own horse and his own harrow, the value of the work being 4d.; and he is to receive from the lord on each day 3 meals, of the value of 5d., and then the lord will be at a loss of 1d. Thus his harrowing is of no value to the service of the lord.
And he ought to carry the manure of the lord for 2 days with 1 cart, with his own 2 oxen, the value of the work being 8d.; and he is to receive from the lord each day 3 meals of the price as above. And thus the service is worth 3d. clear.
And he shall find 1 man for 2 days for mowing the meadow of the lord, who can mow, by estimation 1 acre and a half, the value of the mowing of an acre being 6d.; the sum is therefore 9d.; and he is to receive each day 3 meals of the value given above; and thus that mowing is worth 4d clear.
And he ought to gather and carry that same hay which he has cut, the price of the work being 3d.
And he shall have from the lord 2 meals for 1 man, of the value of d. Thus the work will be worth 1S d. clear.
And he ought to carry the hay of the lord for 1 day with a cart and 3 animals of his own, the price of the work being 6d. And he shall have from the lord 3 meals of the value of 21/2d. And thus the work is worth 31/2d. clear.
And he ought to carry in autumn beans or oats for 2 days with a cart and 3 animals of his own, the value of the work being 12d. And he shall receive from the lord each day 3 meals of the value given above; and thus the work is worth 7d. clear.
And he ought to carry wood from the woods of the lord as far as the manor for two days in summer with a cart and 3 animals of his own, the value of the work being 9d. And he shall receive from the lord each day 3 meals of the price given above; and thus the work is worth 4d. clear.
And he ought to find 1 man for 2 days to cut heath, the value of the work being 4d., and he shall have 3 meals each day of the value given above; and thus the lord will lose, if he receives the service, 3d. Thus that mowing is worth nothing to the service of the lord.
And he ought to carry the heath which he has cut, the value of the work being 5d. And he shall receive from the lord 3 meals at the price of 21/2d. And thus the work will be worth 21/2d. clear.
And he ought to carry to Battle twice in the summer season, each time half a load of grain, the value of the service being 4d. And he shall receive in the manor each time 1 meal of the value of 2d. And thus the work is worth 2d. clear.
The total of the rents, with the value of the hens, is 2s. 4d.
The total of the value of the works is 2s. 31/2d; owed from the said John yearly.
William of Cayworth holds a house and 30 acres of land and owes at Easter and Michaelmas 2s. rent. And he shall do all customs just as the foresaid John of Cayworth.
William atte Grene holds a house and 30 acres of land and owes in all things just as the said John
Alan atte Felde holds a house and 16 acres of land (for which the sergeant pays to the court of Bixley 2s.), and he owes at Easter and Michaelmas 4s., attendance at the manor court, relief and heriot.
John Lyllingvfyst holds a house and 4 acres of land and owes at the two terms 2s., attendance at the manor court, relief and heriot.
The same John holds 1 acre of land in the fields of Hoo and owes at the two periods 2s., attendance, relief and heriot.
Reginald atte Denne holds a house and 18 acres of land and owes at the said periods 18d., attendance, relief and heriot.
Robert of Northehou holds 3 acres of land at Saltcote and owes at the said periods attendance, relief and heriot.
Total of the rents of the villeins, with the value of the hens, 20s. Total of all the works of these three villeins, 6S. 10d. And it is to be noted that none of the above named villeins can give their daughters in marriage nor cause their sons to be tonsured, nor can they cut down tiluber growing on the lands they hold, without license of the bailiff or sergeant of the lord, and then for building purposes and not otherwise. And after the death of any one of the foresaid villeins the lord shall have as a heriot his best animal, if he had any; if however he have no living beast the lord shall have no heriot, as they say. The sons or daughters of the foresaid villeins shall give for entrance into the holding after the death of their predecessors as much as they give of rent per year.
Silvester the priest holds 1 acre of meadow adjacent to his house, and owes yearly 3s.
Total of the rent of tenants for life, 3s. Petronilla atte Holme holds a cottage and a piece of land and owes at Easter and Michaelmas . .; attendance, relief and heriot.
Walter Herying holds a cottage and a piece of land and owes at Easter and Michaelmas 18d., attendance, relief and heriot.
Isabella Mariner holds a cottage and owes at the feast of St. Michael 12d., attendance, relief and heriot.
* * * * * * *
Total of the rents of the said cotters, with the value of the hens, 34s. 6d.
And it is to be noted that all the said cotters shall do as regards giving their daughters in marriage, having their sons tonsured, cutting down timber, paying heriot, and giving fines for entrance just as John of Cayworth and the rest of the villeins formerly mentioned.
Note, fines and penalties, with heriots and reliefs, are worth yearly 5s.
Below is an account of the Borley on the 14th century
A MANOR OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, A.D.1308.
Extent of the manor of Borley made there on Tuesday next after the feast of St. Matthew the Apostle, A. D. 1308, in the first year of the reign of King Edward, son of King Edward, in the presence of John le Doo, steward, by the hands of William of Folesham, clerk, on the oath of Philip, the reeve of Borley, Henry Lambert, Dennis Rolf, Richard at Mere, Walter Johan and Robert Ernald, tenants of the lord in the said vill of Borley. These all, having been sworn, declare that there is there one messuage well and suitably built; that it is sufficient for the products of the manor, and that it contains in itself, within the site of the manor, 4 acres, by estimation. The grass there is worth yearly, by estimation, 2S. And the curtilage there is worth yearly 12d., sometimes more and sometimes less, according to its value. And the fruit garden there is worth yearly as in apples and grapes, perhaps less and sometimes more. Total, 8S.
And it is to be known that the lord is the true patron of the church at Borley, and the said church is worth yearly, according to taxation, in grain, in offerings, in dues. and in other small tithes, £10.
And there is one water-mill in the manor, and it is worth yearly on lease 60S. And the fishpond in the mill dam, with the catch of eels from the race, is worth yearly, by estimation, 12d. Total, 61s.
There is there a wood called le Hoo, which contains 10 acres, and the underbrush from it is worth yearly, without waste, 5s.; and the grass from it is worth yearly ss.; and the feeding of swine there is worth yearly 12d. And there is there a certain other wood called Chalvecroft, which contains, with the ditches, 5 acres. And the herbage there is worth yearly 2S. 6d.; and the underbrush there is worth 3s.; and the feeding of swine there is worth yearly 6d. Total value, 17s.
There are there, of arable land in demesne, in different fields, 300 acres of land, by the smaller hundred. And it is worth yearly, on lease, £x5, at the price of 12d. per acre. Total acreage, 300. Total value, £15
And it is to be known that the perch of land in that manor contains 165 feet, in measuring land. And each acre can be sown suitably with 21/2 bushels of wheat, with 21/2 bushels of rye, with 21/2 bushels of peas, with 3 bushels of oats, and this sown broadcast, and with 4 bushels of barley, even measure. And each plough should be joined with 4 oxen and 4 draught horses. And a plough is commonly able to plough an acre of land a day, and sometimes more.
There are likewise of mowing meadow in various places 29 acres and 1 rood. This is worth yearly £7 6s. 3d., at 5s. an acre. Total acreage, 29 A., 1 R. Total of pence, £7 6s. 3d.
There are likewise of enclosed pasture 28 acres, and this is worth yearly 42S. at 18d. per acre. Of this 16 acres are assigned to the dairy for the cows, and 12 for the oxen and young bullocks. Total, 42s.
It is to be known that the lord can have in the common pasture of Borley, along with the use of the fresh meadows and of the demesnes of the lord, in the open time, 100 sheep, by the greater hundred. And their pasture, per head, is worth 2d. yearly, and not more, on account of the resumption of the food of the shepherd. Total, 20s.
There is there likewise a certain court of free tenants of the lord and of the customary [tenants] meeting every three weeks. And the fines and perquisites thence, along with the view of frank pledge, are worth 20s. a year.
Below is an annual account for a manor in the 14th century:
YEARLY ACCOUNT OF MANOR OF CUXHAM, A. D. 1316-17
Compotus of Robert Oldman, reeve of Cuxham, from the morrow of St. James, in the 10th year of the reign of King Edward, to the morrow of St. James in the next following year, that is the beginning of the 11th year of the reign of King Edward.
Arrearages. He is charged with 6£. 191/2d. of arrearages from the preceding account.
Total 6£. 191/2d
Rents of Assize. He is charged with 13s. 1d. of rent of the period of St. Michael; and with 113/4d. from the foldage of the animals at the feast of St. Martin; and with 6s. 11/2d. of rent of the period of St. Thomas . . . . . .for the same; and with 5s. 11/2d. at the period of St. John; and with 18d. of new rent for 1 acre of land granted to Robert Taylor. Total 38s. 103/4d.
Rent. He is charged with 40s. of rent of the water mill; and with 13s.4d. of yearly rent of the fulling mill. Total 53s. 4d
Sale of Wheat. He is charged with 4£.16s. for 6 quarters of wheat sold Thursday next before the first of August, at 16s. a quarter; and with 10d. for 1 bushel of wheat sold in the autumn to William Walderugge because the keeper granted this to him; and with 6£. 6s. for g quarters of wheat sold before the feast of All Saints at 14s. a quarter. And with 4£.16s. for 6 quarters of wheat sold on the Thursday next before the feast of St. Michael, at 16s. a quarter. Total 15£. 18s 10d.
Sale of Peas and Oats. He is charged with 24s. for 2 quarters and 2 bushels of peas sold, at 13s.8d. a quarter. And with 8s.8d. for 1 quarter and 5 bushels of oats sold, at ss. 4d. a quarter. Total 32s. 8d.
Sale of Malt. He is charged with Its. 6d. for I quarter and 2J/2 bushels of malted barley sold, at 13s.4d. a quarter. And with 16s.3d. for 1 quarter and 5 bushels of malted drage sold, at 10s. a quarter. Total 33s.9d.
Sale of Animals. He is charged with 15s. for 1 work horse sold; and with 40s. for 4 oxen sold; and with 12s. for 1 cow sold in the autumn because she was barren; and with 11s. for 1 cow sold because she was barren; and with 8s. for 1 cow sold because she was weak and old; and with 4s. 6d. for 1 young bull sold because he was weak; and with 11s. 1d. for 7 calves sold, the price of each being 19d.; and with 18d. for 2 sheep sold in winter before the shearing because they were weak; and with 5s.111/2d. for 13 geese, the price of each goose being 51/2d.; and with 11s.1d. for 4 score of pigeons sold. Total 7£ .17s. 11/2d.
Products of the Manor. He is charged with 9d. for swine running in the stubble in the autumn, as shown in the items; and with 51/2d. for sheepskins sold; and with 2s. 6d. for works of Richard Est sold in the winter; and with 2s. 6d. for works of Adam Brian sold in the winter; and with 15d. for works of Joanna Bonecherche sold in the winter; and with 2s. for I perna of bacon; and with w2d. for peas-straw sold; and with 11s. 3d. of present bread of the customary tenants sold at the feast of Christmas; and with 181/2d. for 308 eggs sold, viz., 16 for 1d.; and with 33s. for 51/2 stone of wool sold, the price of a stone being 6s., that is the stone weighing 16 Ibs. and containing 42 fleeces.Total 47s. 3d.
Products of the Dairy. He is charged with ss. 8d. for 17 cheeses of the fourth form sold, the price of each 4d.; and with 18s.3d. Is for 73 cheeses of the third form sold, the price of each 3d.; and with 4s. 10d. for 29 cheeses of the second form sold, the price of each 2d.; and with 6d. for 6 cheeses of little form sold; and with 22d. for milk sold from the Thursday next after the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle to the morrow of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary; and with 3s. 1d. for butter sold in autumn and in winter; and 6d. for milk sold between the feast of the Annunciation and the Thursday next after the feast of S. John before the Latin Gate; and with 10d. for 5 cheeses of the second form sold within this year; and with 12d. for butter sold in summer, and not more because 31/2 jars of butter have been sent toOxford. Total 36s. 6d.
Fines of Land and Heriot. He is charged with 40s. from Thomas Canon as a fine for the land which was Adam atte Hethe's; and with 30s. from William Burdon as a fine for the land which was Robert Wyte's; and 2s. for a copper pot coming as a heriot from Adam atte Hethe, which was sold.Total 72s.
Pleas and Perquisites. He is charged with 3s. 7d. of perquisites of the court held Wednesday next after the Least of St. Mary Magdalen.Total 3s. 7d.
Outside Receipts. He is charged with 12d. of perquisites of the court of Ibestane held Thursday next after the feast of St. Mary Mag dalen; and for 13s. 4d. received from John, son of John Coleman, as a fine for the land which belonged to John the \5lyte of Ibestane; and with 13s. 4d. received from Amisia, daughter of John Coleman, as a fine for the land which belonged to John the Baker of Ibestane; and with 37s. 6d. for so skins of wool sold in the past year which weighed 5 stones, viz., the stone being 16 Ibs., the price of a stone being ss. 6d. Total 56s. 10d.
Total of all the receipts with arrearages 48£. 17s. 43/4d.
Quittances of his own rent. In quittance of his own rent of Waterilond 1d.; and for present bread 2d.; and for saltsilver 1/2d.Total 31/2d.
Cost of the plows. For 6 pieces of steel bought for the plows ss. rod.; for 3 pieces of steel bought for the same 3s. 7d.; for I piece of steel bought sad.; for 6 wheels bought ISd.; for poles bought for the third plow 21/2d.; for the wages of the blacksmith for repairing the plowshares between the feast of St. James and the feast of St. Michael 2s.; for shoeing the draught horses in the same period 181/2d. Likewise in payment of the blacksmith for the repair of the plowshares between the feast of St. Michael and the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle 3s.; for shoeing the draught horses during the same time 18d. In payment to the blacksmith for mending the plowshares between the feast of St. Thomas and the feast of the Annunciation 2s. 1d.; for shoeing the draught horses during the same time 16d. Likewise in payment to the blacksmith for the repair of the plowshares between the feast of the Annunciation and the least of St. James 4s. 6d. For shoeing the draught horses during the same time 17d.; for 4 horseshoes bought 16d.; for 2 trees for timber for the plows 3s. s for cutting down and hauling the same 4d.Total 34s. 4d.
Cost of the Carts. For 17 clouts bought 21d.; for 100 clout nails bought 21/2d.; tor I pair of packsaddles and 3 collars bought 3s. For I pair of traces bought 6d.; for leather bought for harness z2d.; for 5 Ibs. of grease 15d., at 3d. per pound; for I pair of wheels without tires bought 2s. 4d.; for I rear cord bought 11/2d.; for the shoeing of 2 cart-horses between the feast of St. James and the feast of St. Michael 18d.; and the feast of St. Michael and the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle 19d.; and between the feast of St. Thomas and the Annunciaton 20d. For the shoeing of 3 cart-horses from the feast of the Annuncaton to the feast of St. James 2s. 11/2d. Total 17s. 3d.
Small necessary Expenses. For 2 hair ropes bought, of which one was of 6 fathoms and another of 11 fathoms, for keeping the draught horses in the pasture, 9d.; for iron bought at Pyrtone 22s.; for iron bought from Robert Weylond 18d.; for a dish for meat and 4 other dishes because it was autumn 4d.; for 6 bushels of salt bought 12s.; for 3 bushels of salt bought 3s. 6d.; for the custom of the Otters for carrying the fold 2d.; for 75 quarters of drage bought for feeding the swine 4s. 10d., at different prices. For brushwood bought for the hearths 3s. 6d.; for 3 quarters and 2 bushels of gleanings bought for the swine, of which 5 bushels were sent to Oxford, 8s. 8d., the price per quarter being 2s. 8d.; for 1 knife bought for cutting the vegetables for the servants; for rods bought for wattling the fold 8d.; for 12 clouts bought for the fold 2s.; for rods bought for the harrows 21/2d.; for fines bought 18d.; given for the tithe of 7 calves sold 131/2d.; and for the tithe of 3 calves remaining 1/2 d.; and for the tithe of 1 lamb 1/2d.; and for the tithe of 4 skins sold Bid. For milk bought for the lambs 41/2d-; forwashing and shearing the sheep 6d.; formaking4 halters of horsehair 1d.; for expenses of the reeve at Henley for 6 days, selling grain, 9d.; for the expenses of the clerk when he made the account 12d.; for parchment bought for the account 12d.; for pasture bought at Pyrtone 18d.; for hay bought for next year 22s.3d. Total 4£. 9s. 81/4d.
Cost of the Dairy. For rennet bought 6d.; for cloth bought for the dairy 3d.; for pots bought 31/2d. Total 121/2d.
Purchase of Grain. For 2 quarters and 2 bushels of oats bought on account of the lack of threshing gs., the price of a quarter being 4s.; for 5 bushels of vetches bought 7s. 6d., the price of a bushel being 8d.; for I quarter of barley bought 10s. 2d.Total 26s. 8d.
Purchase of Animals. For 1 draught horse bought on St. James' Day 22s.61/4d.; for I draught horse bought in Easter week 14s.4d; for one cow bought in the autumn, before calving 11s.1d.Total 45s.111/2d.
Cost of the Buildings. For one man and his helper hired for 22 days to put a roof on 2 barns, a hay-mow, and the kitchen 11s., being 6d. a day; for 2 women helping them for lo days 3s., being 2d. a day. For 1000 lath-nails bought 11d.; for poles bought for prys 6d. For one man hired for 4 days to roof 2 cottages of the vill 16d., at 4d. a day; for poles bought for prys 2d.; for one woman helping him 4d. For 2 quarters of lime bought 8d. Total 17s. 11d.
Cost of the Mill. For timber bought to renew the water wheel of the mill; for nails bought for the same 6d. Total 3s. 10d.
Threshing and Winnowing. For the expnses of Peter of Wantage while he was having the threshing done ss. 2d.; for the threshing of 9 quarters and 6 bushels of wheat by task, before the feast of St. Michael, 3s. 3d., the price of a quarter being 4d.; for 3 bushels of wheat threshed, at task, after the feast of St. Michael 9d. For the winnowing of the same 2d., because the dairyman winnowed one-half. For the threshing of 12 quarters and 1 bushel of wheat and 25 quarters of peas, in the time of master John of Tube 3s. 73/4d., the price of a quarter being 3d.; forwinnowing the same 25d.,because the dairyman winnowed one-half, being 3 quarters for 1d. For the expenses of master John of Tube while he was having the threshing done 7s. 43/4d., besides some wheat. For the expenses of John of Odiham while he was having the threshing done 22d., besides some of the produce of the oats. For the expenses of master Walter of Durton while he was having the threshing done 3s. 3d., for the same time. For the cheese from the store-room, ale 2d., garlic 2d. For the expenses of the bailiff of Ledrede going to Oxford and returning, about the feast of St. Osyth the virgin, bread from the store-room, ale chid., eggs 1d., cheese from the store-room. For 164 eggs bought for the account 12d.Total 65s. 1d.
Total of all expenses 22£. 7s. 91/2d
And he owes 26£. 9s. 71/2d.
Below is a court roll that gives an indication of the justice carried on in a Manor:
MANOR COURT ROLLS OF GREAT CRESSINGHAM, NORFOLK, 1328-9.
A Court in the same place (Great Cressingham), on Noonday next after the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary in the year of the reign of King Edward above mentioned.
Excuse. William of Glosbridge, attorney of Sir Robert de Aspale by the common excuse through W. Prat. (lye canoe afterwards.)
Order. It was ordered, as before, to distrain master Firmin to show by what right, etc., concerning the tenement Wakvasn. Likewise to distrain Sir John Walwayn for fealty.
Amerciament, 3d. From Petronilla Or Mintling for leave to agree with William Attewente, concerning a plea of trespass.
Order. It was ordered to distrain Peter the Cooper for 15d. w hich he owed to Roger the Miller, at the suit of \5.7illiam Attestrete, who proved against him four shillings in court.
Fine, 12d. From Walter Orengil for his term of four years to hold in 6 acres of land rented from Gilbert Cloveleke, for which grant the said Walter is to pay annually, at the feast of All Saints, to the said Gilbert four quarters and four bushels of barley, during the said term.
Pledges Nally and John Buteneleyn.
Amerciament, 2d. From John Brichtmer because he was summoned to do one boon-work in autumn and did not come. Therefore he is to be amerced.
Amerciament, 2d. From Alice, wife of Richard of Glosblidge, for the same.
Amerciament, 2d. From William Robyn for the same.
Order. From Walter Page and Margaret his wife, because they cannot deny that they are keeping back from John of Euston 3d.; and therefore it was ordered that the said 3d. should be levied from the said Walter to the use of the said John. (Reversed, because he is poor.)
Fine, 4d. Martin the son of Basil and Alice his wife having been examined by the bailiff, surrendered into the lord's hand one rood of land with a cottage thereon, to the use of Isabel daughter of John Fayrsay and their heirs, to hold in villenage at the will of the lord, doing etc. all rights being saved. And she gives, etc.
Fine, 4d. Isabel Fayrsay surrendered into the lord's hands one rood and one quarter of a rood of land and one rood of meadow and half of a cottage to the use of Martin Basil's son and Alice his wife and their heirs, to hold in villenage at the will of the lord, doing etc. All rights being saved. And he gives to the lord.
Fine, 4d. From John Pye for his term of five years to hold in three roods of land rented from Hugh Holer. The term begins at the feast of St. Michael.
Fine, 4£. It is to be remembered that the lord Ollt of his seisin delivered and gave to Vincent of Lakinhatn one messuage, 7 acres 21/2roods of land of the villenage of the lord, which had been taken into the lord's hand after the death of William the son of Hugh because the aforesaid William was a bastard son and died without heirs, to hold of him to the aforesaid Vincent and his heirs, in villenage at the will of the lord, doing thence the services and customs due. All rights being saved. And he gives to the lord for his entry. And saving to Alice who was the wife of Hugh the son of Lawrence half of the said tenements to hold in dower for the term of her life.
Note, I beast; price 10s. The jury says John Bassissone has died seized of one messuage, 16 acres and I rood of land of villenage, and that John his son is his next heir, and is of the age of nine years. And because the said heir has not come, therefore it is ordered that seisin be in the whole villenage until, etc.
Order. To distrain the tenants of the tenement Sowle for one boon-work withheld in autumn.
Fine, 40s. All the jury says that Thomas Ode has died seised of a cottage and S acres and one rood of land of the villenage of the lord, and that they know him to have no surviving heir, and therefore the whole tenement was taken into the lord's hand. And the lord out of his seisin delivered and gave the whole of the said tenement to a certain Simon Planing of Walton and his heirs to hold in villenage at the will of the lord, doing therefor the service and customs due. Saving all kinds of rights. And he gives to the lord to have entry.
Order. Ordered to distrain Henry le Cok, John Maggard, chaplain, and John Ingel, because they withhold from the lord 3d. rent now for five years for the parcel tenement Merchant.
Likewise to distrain Richard of the River for fealty for the tenement formerly of Reyner Attechirche.
Election. The whole homage elect the tenement of Geoffrey Attechirchgate for the office of reeve this year, and the tenants are Nally, Buteneleyn, Martin, Bassissone, and others. And the said Alexander was sworn.
Likewise the tenement of Lawrence Smith for the next year.
Likewise the tenement Ernald for the office of reaper: and the tenants are W. Macurneys, Buteneleyn, W. Pawe, and T. Attenewhouse. And the said W. Pawe was swom and afterward excused. And Prat performs the office for him.
Order. It was ordered to distrain Alan son of William Attehallgate and John his brother, for fealty for the tenement which belonged to master Roger de Snetisham of the fee of the lord.
Likewise to distrain John Pye to show by what right, etc., and for fealty.
Likewise to retain the pledges taken from the men of Hilburworth until they have made satisfaction for damages done in the common.
Amerciament, 12d. From William Hubbard for damage in the lord's meadows.
Amerciament, 6d. From John Aylemer for damage in the fields in autumn.
Amerciament, 2d. From Hugh Holer because he did not do his boon-work in autumn, as he was surnmoned to do.
12d. From Isabel Syapping for license to have a fold of her own sheep.
Memorandum. Of 4 bushels of barley taken from Roger the miller, etc., by the Reaper; and let them be handed over to Thomas Pawe for a debt recovered against the said Roger.
Total 6£. 4s. 1 1d., besides a heriot valued at 10s.
Total of all the courts for the whole year, 8£. 16s. 8d.
Cressingham. A Court and Leet there on Monday next after the feast of the apostles Peter and Paul, in the third year of the reign of king Edward, the Third from the Conquest.
* * * * * * * * * * * * *
Fine, 18d. Gilbert de Secheforde surrendered into the hands of the bailiff, in the presence of the whole homage a cottage to the use of John Putneys and his heirs, to hold in villenage at the will of the lord, doing thence the services and customs due; saving rights of all kinds. And he gives for entry, etc.
Order. It was ordered to retain in the lord's hand one messuage and one acre of land of which John Belessone was seized when he died, because it is not known of what condition he was; and therefore the rolls of the 34th and 32d of king Edward are being examined.
Amerciament, 3d. From Alice, daughter of Geoffrey Attenewhouse, for marrying without leave.
Amerciament, 4d. From John, son of Martin, for the same
Postponement. A sllit between Thomas Attetunesende, plaintiff, and Adam Attewater, defendant, concerning a plea of agreement, was postponed till the next court by consent of the parties on account of arbitration.
Postponement. A distraint taken from John Maggard and Henry le Coke for arrears of rent was postponed till the next court. And it was ordered to distrain John Ingil, their Joint-tenant, etc.
Chief Pledges. John Buteneleyn, John Hardy, William Robin, Thomas Hardy, Henry Pawe, Nicholas, son of Roger, Laurence Smith, Roger Attehallgate, Roger Gurnay, William le Warde, William Attestrete. Robert Gemming.
These were sworn and say:
Fine, 3d. From William Hubbard for license to put his grain growing in the lord's villenage, out of villenage.
Amerciament. From Silvester Smith, for blood drawn from John Marschal. (Erased.) Because he was elsewhere.
A. 6d. From John Barun for the same from William, son of Sabine.
A. 3d. From Margaret Millote for the same from Agnes, daughter of Martin Skinner.
A. 6d. Form the rector for an encroachment on the common at Greneholm, I 2 perches long and 2 feet wide.
A. 6d. From the same rector for an encroachment made at Caldewell, 20 perches long and I foot wide.
A. 3d. From Roger of Draytone because he made an encroachment at the Strete 3 perches long and I foot wide.
* * * * * * * * * * * * *
A. 6d. From Hugh Rolf and Hugh Holer for license to resign the office of ale-taster.
Election. Alan le Cok and Alan le Spicer were elected to the office of ale-taster, and sworn.
A. 2d. From Christiana Punte because she has sold ale and bread contrary to the assize.
A. 2d. From William, son of Clarissa because he broke into the house of John son of Geoffrey Brichmer.
A. 2d. From Adam son of Matilda Thomas because he is not in the tything.
A. 2d. From John son of Thomas Brun for the same.
A. 6d. From Peter the miller for a hue and cry justly raised against him by the wife of William the Fuller.
Below is another court roll from manors controlled by a monastery:
EXTRACTS FROM THE HALMOTE COURT ROLLS OF THE PRIOR AND CONVENT OF DURHAM, 1345-83.
The following items are extracted from the records of the successive courts held by the Steward, Bursar, or Terrar of the Priory Of Durham. Three courts a year seem to nave been held in each of the fifteen manors belonging to the convent, besides more frequent meetings, at the call of the reeve. The word "halmote" or "halimote" is frequently applied to the manor court meetings, and is generally considered to be equivalent to a meeting in the hall or manor house.
First Tourn of the Halmotes of the Priory of Durham, beginning at Fery, July 6th, A. D. 1345, before lords William of Chareton and Robert of Benton, Terrar and Bursar, and Simon Esshe, Steward.
Spen, 1345. Agnes widow of Adam of Mora has taken a house and 50 acres of land which her husband Adam formerly held, paying annually for her life 33s. 4d. And there is remitted to her 16s. 8d. a year from the old rent on account of her age and weakness of mind.
Billingham, 1345. Agnes daughter of William Nouthird has taken a cottage with the curtilage, which the said William her father formerly held, to be held on payment of 6d. a year and 20 autumn works in the manor of Billingham, provided she has food. Fine, 2s.; pledges J. of Stokton and Alexander son of Gilbert.
The reeve and jurors complain and present that certain persons named below do not hold land by reason of which they have any right to have part in the common pasture, and yet they feed their cattle on the pasture of the vill to the injury of those who hold land. It is therefore required that they remove their animals from the pasture so that for the future they shall not thus overstock the pasture; under penalty of half a mark.
North Pittington, 1358. Bonageus Moneyer came here into court and took a messuage and 28 acres of land which had been Christiana Ponchoun's, because no one of the blood of the said Christiana was willing to fine for them, to have and hold for the term of his life, on payment for the first 3 years of 13s. 4d. a year, and afterward 20s. a year. And the same Bonageus will repair within a year, at his own cost, the building of the foresaid messuage. And he gives for a fine 20s. of which 13s. 4d. is remitted for the repairs of the foresaid buildings. Pledges for the rent and for all other things which are required Robert Thomson and John Ponchoun.
Bonageus Moneyer came here and took a messuage and 20 acres of land formerly in the tenure of Richard of Aucland vicar of Pittington, which were seized into the hand of the lord because he left them and rented them without license of the lord; to have and hold for the term of his life, paying the ancient rent and doing for the lord and his neighbors what is required; on the pledge of John Ponchoun and Robert Thomson. And he gives as fine 13s. 4d.
West Raynton, 1364. It is reported by the inquisition upon which Hugh Urkyll has placed himself, viz. on the oath of, etc. (8 names) that the said Hugh is a nativus of the lord prior and that his father and grandfather were considered as nativi of the said lord prior. And moreover this same Hugh made his fealty here in court just as pertains to a nativus. It is reported by the same inquisition that John Wydowson is a nativus of the lord and of like condition, etc.; and besides this, etc. has made his fealty etc. It is ordained and enjoined on all who were on the foresaid inquisition that each of them hold what was said among them as a secret, under penalty of payment of 40d. by the one who is found guilty. It is enjoined on all the tenants of that vil] and the vill of East Raynton that no one of them call any one of those vills "nativus" of the lord, under penalty of payment of 20s. by the one who is found guilty.
Billingham, 1364. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that none of them grind his grain outside of the domain so long as the mill of the lord prior is able to grind, under penalty of 20s.
Coupon, 1365. It is reported by the jury that Thomas son of Richard of Billingham staying at Melsonby and acting as common herdman there, is a nalizJus of the lord.
Newton Bewley, 1365. From John of Baumburg for his transgression aganst Adam of Marton, in calling hm false, perjured, and a rustic; to the loss of the same Adam of Marton 40d., penalty 13d.
Mid-Merrington, 1365. From Richard, son of Thomas, hecause he has not recalled his son from school before the feast of St. Michael as enjoined upon him at the last Halmote, penalty 40d. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that none of them insult the pounder while fulfilling his duty, nor swear at him.
West Raynton, r 365. A day is given to al1 the tenants of the vill to make a law that neither they nor their wives nor their servants shall cut down anything within the woods, nor carry anything green away from the woods; each of them at the next court six-handed.
Coupon, 1365. From Agnes Postell and Alice of Belasis, for breaking the assize of ale, 12d. From Alice of Belasis, for bad ale, and moreover because the ale which she sent to the Terrar was of no strength, as was proved in court, 2s.
Ackley, 1365. It is ordained by common consent that no one permit colts, calves, young steers or any other animals within the field in which grain is sowed until the grain is cut and carried off, under penalty of half a mark.
Fery, 1365. It is ordained by common consent that Robert Todd should keep his sheep from feeding on the grain of his neighbors and on the cowpasture, under penalty of 40d.; and moreover that each tenant keep his pigs, cows, horses, and other animals from feeding on the grain or treading it, and that the cottagers should keep their cattle within the common pasture, under the penalty foresaid.
Ackley, 1366. It is required of John, son of Thomas of Chilton, living at Coites that he recall his son from the schools before the feast of the Purification of the Virgin next.
West Merrington, 1367. It is enjoined on all the tenants of the vill that each of them cause to be plowed the outer parts of the field and then the inner parts, so that none of them .... loss on account of lack of plowing.
Billingham, 1368. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that none of them cut the balks before the next court.
Coupon, 1368. John Pulter and Robert Fauks were elected aletasters, and were sworn.
Newton Bewley, s368. From Alice, servant of Adam of Marton, for leyr, t 6d. From Thomas, servant of the same for drawing his knife to strike John Smith, penalty 40d., by grace 12d.
Wallsend, 1368. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that each of them come on the summons of the reeve to discuss the common business touching the profit of the vill.
Hesylden, 1368. From Robert, son and heir of John son of Matilda, as a heriot for 1 messuage and 20 acres of land which he holds freely, for homage, and fealty and service of 40d. and a heriot, viz. the best beast; 15s., and nothing for relief.
Monkton, 1369. Robert Jackson, nativus of the lord, made his fealty to the lord at Jarrow, Thursday next after the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist, in the 69th year.
Heworths, 1370. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that they have the common forge and the common oven repaired.
East Raynton, 1370. From Margaret daughter of Robert Wright for merchet, pledge, Alice, her mother, 2s.
Fery, 1370. From Margaret Ferywoman for leyr, 6d. From Adam Graundorge for his transgression made against Robert Letany by killing his cow to the loss of 7s. 3d. A day is given to the same Adam to make his law against Richard, son of Peter, that he has not broken the leg of his cow. At the next court, with six hands. He has not found a pledge. Therefore let the said Richard recover against him. From Adam Glaundorge for I COW of Richard, son of Peter, killed, to the loss of 10s., penalty 3d.
Wallsend, 1370. It is ordained by conzmon consent that each tenant should come to the making of the hay of the common meadow when they shall be warned, under penalty of losing their part and even under penalty of heavy fine.
Harton, 1370. An inquisition was taken here Tuesday, the day after St. Simon's and St. Jude's day, A. D. 1370, before lord John of Heminburg, Terrar, and lord Thomas Surtays, Steward, for inquiring of what condition Adam Diotson and Roger Ward are, on the oath of John Wallas, 80 years old, Thomas Page, Richard of Hertlaw, John I)ogeson, John Gray, John, son of Adam of Southn yk, Thomas, son of Alan, and John Reid. Who say on their oath that a certain John Ward, grandfather of the aforesaid Roger Ward, and John Ward, father of the same Roger, were of old held to be nativi of the lord Prior, and never did they hear the contrary till this day. And they say that a certain Thomas Maymond, grandfather of the aforesaid Adalll, and John, father of the aforesaid Roger, were brothers by the same father and mother, and they say that the aforesaid Adam and Roger are of the same servile condition as their ancestors were and never did they hear the contrary.
East Raynton, 1370. Lease of the manor. John Freman, Robert of Coldingham, Elias Pater-Noster, and Thomas Gibson have taken the demesne lands with their buildings, to have and to hold for the term of 15 years, paying yearly at the treasury 8 marks, and to the Terrar half a mark, commencing payment at the feast of Pentecost, A. D. '7I. And they found 54 acres of one cultivation; and they will manure 10 acres in each year. And they will return the buildings and land in proper condition because they so received them. Pledges, each of the other, and others of the vill who work part of it on lease from John Freman and his said companions. And they will grind the grain from the said demesnes at the mill of the Prior in the same way as it is ground from the lands of the other tenants.
Mid-Merrington, 137I. It is en,oined on all the cotters and laborers that they work with the farmer of the manor for suitable wages.
Newton-Bewley, 137r. William Raynald was elected to the office of reeve, and was sworn.
Billingham, 1374. Fealty of a nativus taken. Robert, son of Eustace Fristerlying of Hesilden, sativus of the lord came here on Thursday, the feast of Pope Clement, A. D. '74, in the presence of lord llohn of Beryngton, lerrar, Alan of Billingham, John of Elvet, Hugh of Corbrigg, and several other tenants of Bil]ingham, Wolveston, Newton, and Coupon, and swore, touching the sacred gospels, that hewill be under the jurisdiction of the lord Prior and Convent of Durham and their officers, in his body and his goods, and that he will not remove himself from their land, etc.
Southwyk, 1374. From Robert Smith because he would not sit down at the command of the Steward. Robert Smith took one holding which was last in the tenure of William, son of Henry, to have and hold for the term of his life, paying yearly for all things, viz. for services and other different things, 30s.
East Merrington, s367. It is reported by the oath of (fourteen names) in the presence of lord Robert of Wallworth, prior, and many others that Robert, son of Nicolas, who now is called Tomson is free and of free condition and free status, and not a zzativus of the said lord Prior.
Ackley, 1376. John Tailor has come and taken 12 acres of land with the mea(low pertaining to the said 12 acres of land, lately in the tenure of William Ibbi and leased by the said William to the said John with the license of the prior; to have and hold for the tern1 of his life; paying annually 125. Fine 3s.
Hesilden, 1376. It is ordained by common consent that all things collected within the field, as well as herbage, be carried openly through the middle of the vill and not behind the gardens, in secret. It is enjoined upon all the women of the vill that they restrain their tongues and that they do not quarrel nor swear at any one.
Dalton, 1376. From Joanna, wife of William Smith, for merchet
d. From Margaret, servant of the former, for leyr with two men, I 2d. From the wife of John Dawson, for breaking the assize of ale 6d.
Wolveston, 1376. William May, yzativus of the lord has taken 30 acres of land xvith the crop; viz., 5 acres of wheat, price per acre 10s., 3 acres of peas and heans and 4 acres of oats, price per acre ss. The same William held these before and on account of his incapacity they were seized into the hand of the lord; to have and to hold at the will of the lord, paying the ancient rent.
Billingham, 1378. It is ordained by common consent that at the blowing of the horn of the Reaper, they should come for the gathering of the peas, and when he blows his horn again they all withdraw from the said peas, under penalty of 6d.; and moreover that no one collect except in his own place, unless he is poor.
West Raynton, 1378. A day is given to that vill that they inquire and present whether John Hunting and Cecilia his wife beat Margaret the widow or not, at the next court under penalty of half a mark. From John Hunting because he did not close his front, so that his aninlals trampled and destroyed the cabbages of Margaret the widow.
Billingham, 1379. It is ordained by common consent that no one in the time of harvest should have in the day time more than one horse in the grain, for carrying his food, and that at night he should remove the said horse from the grain, under penalty of 4d. g and similarly that no one carry off the grain of another, under the same penalty.
Monktonn1379. It is enjoined upon Thomas Lame that he cause to he rebuilt before the feast of St. Michael, a barn which was burned in his tenure, under penalty of 4os.
Pittyngton, 1379. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that they heat up the oven, each one of them when his turn shall come, under penalty of paying 12d.
East Merrington, 1381. It is ordained by common consent that each tenant should keep the animals when his turn comes, and for the day in which he has their custody, he should respond and give satisfaction for injuries made in the grain or herbage to the one or ones who have had the losses, under penalty of paying 4d.
Fery, 1383. It is enjoined upon all the tenants of the vill that they should have boundary marks, under penalty of half a mark, and moreover that they should pay the common shepherd his wages, and that they should not speak ill to the said shepherd, under penalty of 40d.
IV. THE MANOR HOUSE AT CHINGFORD, ESSEX, A. D. 1265
The manor of Chingford was granted by the Chapter of st. Paul's Cathedral, London, in 1265, to their Treasurer, Robert le Moyne. In the description of the manor and its contents the receipt of which he acknowledged, the following description of the manor buildings is given.
He received also a sufficient and handsome hall well ceiled with oak. On the western side is a suitable bed, on the ground, a stone chimney, a wardrobe and a certain other small chamber; at the eastern end is a pantry and a buttery. Between the hall and the chapel is a side-room. There is a decent chapel covered with tiles, a portable altar, and a small cross. In the hall are four tables on trestles. There are likewise a good kitchen well covered with tiles, with a furnace and ovens, one large, the other small, for cakes, two tables, and alongside the kitchen a small house for baking. Also a new granary covered with oak shingles, and a building in which the dairy is contained, though it is divided. Likewise a chamber suited for clergymen and a necessary chamber. Also a hen-house. These are within the inner gate.
Likewise outside of that gate are an old house for the servants, a good stable, long and divided, and to the east of the principal building, beyond the smaller stable, a solar for the use of the servants. Also a building in which is contained a bed; also two barns, one for wheat and one for oats. These buildings are enclosed with a moat, a wall, and a hedge. Also beyond the middle gate is a good barn, and a stable for cows and another for oxen, these old and ruinous. Also beyond the outer gate is a pigstye.
MANUMISSION OF A VILLEIN
To all the faithful of Christ to whom the present writing shall come, Richard by the divine permission abbot of Peterborough and the con vent of the same place, eternal greeting in the Lord. Let all know that we have manumitted and liberated from all yoke of servitude William, the son of Richard of Wythington whom previously we have held as our born bondman, with his whole progeny and all his chattels, so that neither we nor our successors shall be able to require or exact any right or claim in the said William, his progeny, or his chattels. But the same William with his whole progeny and all his chattels will remain free and quit and without disturbance, exaction, or any claim cm the part of us or our successors by reason of any servitude, forever. We will moreover and concede that he and his heirs shall hold the rnessuages, land, rents and meadows in Wythington which his ancestors held from us and our predecessors, by giving and performing the fine which is called merchet for giving his daughter in marriage and tallage from year to year according to our will--that he shall have and hold these for the future from us and our successors freely, quietly, peacefully, and hereditarily, by paying thence to us and our successors yearly 40s. sterling, at the four terms of the year, nan ely; at St. John the Baptist's day, 10s., at Michaelmas, 10s., at Christmas, 10s., and at Easter, 10s., for all service, exaction, custom, and secular demand; saving to us nevertheless attendance at our court of Castre every three weeks, wardship and relief, and outside service of our lord the king-, when they shall happen. And if it shall happen that the said William or his heirs shall die at any time without an heir, the said messuage, land, rents, and meadows with their appurtenances shall return fully and completely to us and our successors. Nor will it be allowed to the said William or his heirs the said messuage, land, rents, meadows, or any part of them to give, sell, alienate, mortgage, or in any way encumber by which the said messuage, land, rents, and meadows should not return to us and our successors in the form declared above. But if this should occur later their deed shall be declared null and what is thus alienated shall come to us and our successors. In testimony of which duplicate seals are appended to this writing, formed as a chirograph, for the sake of greater security. These being witnesses, etc. Given at Borough, for the love of lord Robert of good memory, once abbot, our predecessor and maternal uncle of the said William, and at the instance of the good man brother Hugh of Mutton, relative of the said abbot Robert; A. D. 1278, on the eve of Pentecost.